PROFMEX Opening To The EUROPEAN UNION: ancaOlga Lazin’s Memoirs

PROFMEX OPENINGS TO THE EU AND RUSSIA:

My Escape from Transylvania to the World

From the Romanian Gulag to Modern Cultures and Globalization

By

Olga Magdalena Lazín

(PROFMEX and UCLA)

INTRODUCTION[1]

I was born in Transylvania, Northern Romania, in a town named Satu M. I grew up like Alice in Wonderland: among intellectual’s children, and also cute, lovely, and many Gypsy children whom I taught the Romanian language, pretty early in life, starting in 1st and second grade. We had a tough life, and our parents were always working ‘til late hours at night. My brother Alex, and I were reading late at night, waiting for mom, Magdalena to turn off the lights, as she continued working at home in accounting. She was compounding the lengths and width of the wooden logs that were heading to Russia year by year. And she let us play all day long to our heart’s content. So unique, and we felt so free exploring nature in Sighet.

In 1973, at age 10 as a fifth grader in Transylvania’s isolated town of Sighet[2], I had to make a fateful decision about my choice of foreign-language study: Russian or English. The pressure was on us to take up Russian, thus proving that we were all students loyal to the dictator Socialist” Nicole Ceausescu’s “Socialist Government” (read Romanian Communism allied with Moscow), but consciously I detested that system.

Although I wanted to learn English, I did not then how fateful that choice would be until 1991, when at almost 27 years of age, I met Jim Wilkie who had been advised by his brother Richard to include my town of Sighet in his journey to assess the how Eastern Europe was faring after the fall of the “Berlin Wall,” short for the long wall that kept the people of Communist countries locked and unable to escape. But more later about how Jim found me as he sought an English-speaking intellectual and social guide to Eastern Europe.

In the meantime, growing up in Sighet with a population of only 30,000 people, we were proud to recognize Elie Wiesel (born 1928) as our most prominent citizen long before he won the 1986 Nobel Peace Prize. He helped us get past the terrible history of Sighet Communist Prison where “enemies of the state” were confined until “death due to natural cause.”

In my early years I had a hard time understanding how the green and flowered valley of Sighet (elevation 1,000 feet, on the Tisa River at the foot of our forested Carpathian Mountains) could be so beautiful, yet we lived under the terribly cruel eye of the Securitate to protect from the people the wretched Dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu. Ceausescu,[3] who ruled from 1965 to his execution in 1989, was the harshest leader of all the countries behind Russia’s Wall against Western Europe.

Oddly enough, in the Transylvania of the late 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, supposedly I was living the “Golden Age of Romanian Socialism,” but even to myself as a young student; I could see that the promised “full progress” was clearly a lie. Most adults agreed but feared to speak so bluntly.

Even though the “English-Speaking USA” had been supposedly always threatening to invade Romania, I continued to study English language and literature. That I chose to study English even though the act alone brought suspicion on me because all society was taught to believe since 1945 that we were fighting off the Great Satin USA.[4] America was officially seen as a threat to Ronia and it allies under Russia’s COMECON,[5] all of which I became only fully aware as I grew older and had to buy the English Course textbooks on the risky, expensive Black Market.

In the meantime, without rarely granted permission, we were forbidden to meet and visit with foreigners, especially those who spoke English and who wanted to hear from us about Sighet and its nearby wooden hamlets of the Maramures Province, where I have my first memories. The region is ethnically diverse, with a stimulating climate ranging from very hot summers and very cold winters. Geographically, we lived in the valleys and Mountains of Gutinul through which the rivers of Iza and Tisa flow. Geographically, the beautiful forested Tisa River is the natural border with Southern Ukraine.

As folklore has it in the West, vampires are native to Transylvania. We had vampires, werewolves, and wolverines, but all the mythological characters were actually members of the Communist Party, which everyone had to join–except for me because with my knowledge, I was considered a security risk!

Fortunately, when in 1982 I entered the University Babes Boljay, in Cluj-Napoca, to earn my M.A. in 1990, for my sociology classes, I decided to conduct my field research project into the rural life of the North of Romania, recording the folklore (especially myths) invented and passed down by rural folks (including small merchants, farmers, fisherman, loggers) had had used that lore to help them survive for centuries.

Further, much of my research conducted among the outlying farmers, delved deeply into Transylvania Folklore, which prepared me well to understand Communist Party Lore.

Thus, for the second time, my fateful choice of a field research project had further prepared me, unknowingly, for my future with Jim Wilkie.

Once I had been admitted to the Babes Boljay University, which was called “the heart and brain of Transylvania,” I also further expanded and deepened deep studies in American language and literature. Also I studied Romanian language and literature in the Department of Philology. The Bolyai University Is considered the best University in Transylvania.

Upon beginning my mentoring for other students, I was happy to find a sense of freedom. Reading and writing comprehension were my forté during my four years at Cluj. I had always dreamt of being a professor and a writer and seemed to be off to a great start.

But I soon realized that our professors opened the day by reading the mounds of new Decrees just signed by Ceausescu. Thus, I began laughing, and other students join me in mocking the wooden language of Central Planning’s attempt to befuddle us with words from a wooden language, totally bent toward twisting our brains into confused submission. Professors and Securitate officers were acting as sweaty bureaucrats trying to teach us how to sharpen our mental images . Not one professor asked us, “What do each of you really think of all this Ceausescu propaganda of decrees harming the educational process?”

Professors had their favorite students and made sure they pointed this out in class, stifling any competition as they show openly their favoritism or nepotism.

When I reached the age of 22 in 1985, I started to be argumentative, criticizing professors, especially the history professor who only knew only the History of the Romanian Communist Party.

Further, as a woman in academia, I began to resent being forced to do the military service. The Russians, having been directing Romanian politicians since 1945, pressured the Romanians to dig useless trenches as well as learn to disassemble and assemble the AK47!

The atmosphere was dreadful in classes. Restrictions were plentiful and absurd. Speech was not free; one couldn’t discuss issues freely in class, or make any real analysis or debate. One had to regurgitate what the professors were telling us. Modern economics led by and read whatever was there in the old books stacked in the communist library. Until I escaped Romania in 1992, I learned that the so-called economics classes we took taught nothing about money, credit, and such terms as GDP. The Marxian economics involved only fuzzy nonsensical slogans such as “We Romanians have to fight-off the ‘running dogs of capitalism,” without the word “capitalism” ever being defined except in unrealistic theory laced with epithets.

Even as an English major, I could not speak with to foreigners in English –answering one question was a crime, according to the tendentious Security Decrees. Abortion was a crime punishable for up to 20 years in prison. Doctors performing it ended up in jail, and so did the pregnant women. Punishments were ridiculous—the Anti-Abortion Law lasted for 40 years, until 1990.

Furthermore if my uncle from Canada visited us, we were all under surveillance, the entire family. Even today, in 2016 one has to report to the police to declare if any visitor of family comes from the USA (or Canada, for some bizarre security reason). Well after 25 years, not much has changed in poor Romania.

THE INFLUENCE OF RECENT ROMANIAN HISTORY

In the meantime, the History of Transylvania weighed heavily on population of Romania, with constant change in the emerging political map always have left “citizens” always lost about who was really in charge.

Thus, Transylvania was originally part of the Dacia Kingdom between 82 BC until the Roman conquest in 106 AD. The capital of Dacia was destroyed by the Romans, so that a new as capital would serve the Roman Province of Dacia, which lasted until 350 AD, by which time the Romans felt so hated that it behooved them withdraw back to Rome.

During the late 9th century, western Transylvania was conquered by the Hungarian Army to later become part of the Kingdom of Hungary and in 1570 to devolve into the Principality of Transylvania. During most of the 16th and 17th centuries, the Principality became an Ottoman Empire vassal state, confusingly also governed by the Habsburg Empire. After 1711 Transylvania was consolidated solely into the Hapsburg Empire and Transylvanian princes were replaced with Habsburg imperial governors. After 1867, Transylvania ceased to have separate status and was incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary as part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[6] After World War I, Transylvania reverted in 1918 to be part of Romania. In 1940 Northern Transylvania again became governed by Hungary and then Germany, but Romanian queen Maria successfully reclaimed it after the end of World War II.

The year 1940 was important for Romania because if was seized for its oil by Nazi Germany (1940-1944), “liberated” by the “Soviet Union” (1944-1947), and finally “re-liberated” to become the Popular republic of Romania (under USSR remote control), as the Cold War was beginning to freeze the Iron Curtain into place.

At the end of World War II while the USSR and its Red Army were the occupying powers in all Romania, in 1947 Romania forcibly and ironically became a “People’s Republic” (1947–1989), after the rise of the Iron Curtain.

The first “president,” Gheorghiu-Dej (1947) ruled as puppet of Moscow, but when he died, his Secretary General of the Communist Party of Romania, Nicolae Ceausescu, was elected as the second “president” (1965-1989), shifting his savage dictatorship into a harsher Romanian “Gulag” than known in the USSR.

For two decades I neither understood the dimensions of tragic history of Transylvania, nor did I understand that I would have to escape the Gulag of Romania by the “skin of my teeth.”

For peoples of the world Transylvania seems to be a far away place, where most people know the werewolves and vampires have been “seen” to in the imagination of Transylvanians, whose beliefs was soaked in mystical folklore. Even today it is hardly possible to have a rational conversation with most the Transylvanian folk on any subject without recourse to try to understand where their distorted imagination has befuddled them.

The population has consisted of Romanians, Hungarians, Germans, and some Ukrainians. These languages are still being spoken in Romania’s Maramures province, but because I always liked and loved the Romanian language, I decided to become a Professor of Romanian Language and Literature.

MY BACKDROP TO THE FALL OF CEAUSESCU

I later told Jim how I had been admitted in 1982 to the Babes-Bolyai University, in Cluj-Napoca at the heart of Transylvania, I focused especially on Linguistics. Unfortunately, there I found that the professors, who were under the control of sweaty Securitate officers, had to read dozens of new Decrees issued every day as they sought to control every one of our daily actions—all in the name of protecting the Ceausescu government—which was selling the country’s food supplies to Russia in order to pay down Roman’s official debt at our experts. Those Securitate officers ate well and ominously watched us virtually starve. They said, be calm like your parents in the face of starvation.

Thus, I furiously called out in my classes that our very existence was being compromised by Ceausescu’s abandonment of the population, which was ordered to, as Lenin famously said, “work, work, and work.”

To protect myself as best I could, I turned to humor, seeking to ridicule Ceausescu’s “national paradise.” But when I encouraged my classmates to laugh at the propaganda embedded in the wooden language of the national bureaucracy, I soon fell under the heavy scrutiny of university authorities, who were furious that I trying to expose the fact that all classes had been organized to befuddle the student body into confused submission. Indeed, each professor had favorite students to help drown out legitimate questions and stifle any competing analysis—the university lived under nepotism, favoritism, the threat of rape (virtual and real) by the Securitate officers, and open bribery–choose your garden variety.

MY 1986 FLIGHT FROM ROMANIA BACKFIRES

By 1986, at age 23, I had decided to flee Romania—an illegal act because Ceausescu did not want anyone (especially women of child-bearing age) to escape his plan to building his “ideal socialist industries” on farms and ranches as well as in the cities. In June I made my way to the border of Yugoslavia and paid a smuggler to evade the Romanian security forces that were preventing the “nations workers” from escaping. The smuggler, who took me across the border, turned out to be working for Romanian Border Police. Thus, soon after crossing into Yugoslavia, he turned his wagon around and I was again in Romania again when I realized what had happened too late. I had been “sold” to Ceausescu’s minions for a wagonload of salt.

That failed escape from Romania led me to a 10-month prison sentence in Timisoara Prison, wherein the block cells were maintained so cold (supposedly to eliminate bacteria and viruses) that it made all of us inmates sick with the cold and the flu.

Cell bed blankets were less warm than one Kleenex tissue. Moreover there were no pillow, and the concrete slab where inmates slept was a back-breaker. The lights were on 24 hours a day, blinding all of us, and there was constant observation. Every hour one was awakened to be counted for, and sneaking up on people, under the guise of watching out for suicides. But everyone could be clearly seen by the guards, and there was no need to sleep-deprive inmates. There was also someone in the higher echelon ripping off the food budget to siphon money to themselves while serving inmates only baby carrots and spicy beans.

Almost every family in Romanian civil society had at least one member who had been imprisoned for trying to open the political system by denouncing the Ceausescu dictatorship. These inmates were openly called “Political Prisoners,” and I was one of them.

Political Prisoners were not permitted to work outside the prison walls in the fields because our crime had been the political decision to repudiate Ceausescu’s “fantastic system.”

OUT OF PRISON IN 1987 AND OPEN TO CHANGE IN THE AIR

Once free in 1987, I could return to my University to finally complete my M.A. in 1990.

Further in 1987, at the age of 24, I met the Family patriarch Nicolae Pipas,[7] who directed for the Communist government the walled Regional Art Museum in a quiet part of Sighet. Being one of the few highly educated persons who spoke English in the region, I began to serve as interpreter/guide to visiting foreign Ambassadors permitted to travel in Romania. They wanted to see the Museum with its magnificent collection of paintings, sculptures, and rare historical pottery and coins. Thus, I soon found myself translating for visiting English-Speaking Ambassadors from many countries who wished to know Transylvania, especially my village Sighet and its Merry Cemetery famous worldwide for it tombstones in the form of wood sculpture of the butcher, the baker, candlestick maker, and all professions.

Although my first languages were Romanian and Hungarian, I could also translate into French and Italian. Indeed at that time I was teaching Latin in the Rural School System of my Maramures Province.

By 1989, Ceausescu realized that his end was near, and he sought to gain support by pardoning his political prisoners (such as myself) who had tried to escape the horrendous conditions in the country. Hence, university students and some labor unions joined forces and quite quickly after the fall of the Berlin Wall forced Ceausescu and his draconian wife Elena to flee. They were caught and executed on Christmas Day, 1989, by the military that at the last moment joined the Revolution.

As my friends and I (along with most of the population) cheered the fall of the failed, rotten Romanian “dictatorship of the proletariat,” my dear mother acted differently. She was so confused by the propaganda of the only “leader” she knew much about that she wept for Ceausescu, not fully realizing that he was the one who had wrongly had be arrested and put me in prison.

With Ceausescu gone, in 1990 I was able to secure a passport to ready myself to leave Romania by gaining visas for Germany and France. The question remained, how to get there by land without a visa to Austria—my region had no air connection to the outside world.

MY FATEFUL 1991 MEETING IN SIGHET WITH JIM WILKIE

Almost age 27 in 1991, I was in the right place at the right time when UCLA Professor Jim Wilkie arrived in Sighet September 17th with Professor James Platler (his friend and driver). They came as part of their trip to assess the impact of the 1989 Fall of Iron Curtain–which had imprisoned all Romanians and made it a crime to try to escape from Romania. The two Americans had already visited “East” Germany, Czech,[8] and Slovakia (soon to break their union, each becoming independent), and Poland, where English speakers could provide guidance.

In Romania the UCLA Team found itself at a loss as few of the people who they encountered could speak English and none of them could analyze or articulate how the System of Government and society functioned before and after 1989.

When we met, Jim immediately contracted[9] with me to advise them as well as guide them through Eastern Europe. They were pleased to hear the my outline of Transylvanian and Romanian history (see above), with which I explained how constant national boundary change meant that Transylvanians and Romanians were never able to develop either honest civil government or active civic society. Little did I know that the concepts of “Civic” and “Civil” Society were of utmost importance to Jim? As I would find out later, Jim and I had been conducting compatible research for years and would lead me to (A) my PHD Dissertation and (B send C) two books written with Jim.[10] All these works distinguish between the concepts of Civil Society (which represents national and local governmental activity and Civic Society (which involves active private citizens (who organize non- govermental initiatives to develop model projects beyond the ability of official bureaucrats to even comprehend, including the influence needed to monitor and expose the failures and successes of governmental activity).

But before we left September 18th to visit Romania and Hungary, I had to find a substitute for my new class teaching American English and History in Sighet—I left a friend, Johnny Popescu, to become my permanent substitute. Only then could our newly expanded Team set off under my guidance.

Thus, we set out on September 18, 1991, to visit one of the most socially and economically interesting and beautiful parts of Romania by going up thought the green forested Carpathian Mountains via the beautiful Prislop Pass, stopping to visit small farming families in their folkloric clothing of which they were justifiably proud to wear on a daily basis. Farther east in Romania, on the scenic roads, we visited the monasteries of Moldova, the town of Cimpulung Moldovenesc, Suceava, and then the Monasteries in Sucevita and Agapia. The gorgeous forested mountain road eventually led to Lacul Rosu and the lake country. Then we took the long scenic mountain road to Cluj Napoca to visit my University.

As I briefed Jim about Romania, he was briefing me about factors in comparing national economies. For example, he told me about how he had reunited in Prague on September 15th with Richard Beset, his former UCLA student and friend, to hear about his role in London as Manger of Deutsche Bank’s New Accounts in Russia and Eastern Europe. Richard had become famous for inviting Banking Officials and national Treasury Ministries to deposit their financial reserves on deposit in his bank in London. But because those who did not understand anything about “interest payment on deposited funds, they did not ask for nor did they gain any interest payments. Also, because most Western Banks were not sure that these new “capitalists” could be “fully trusted” for correct management of their deposits, his Deutsche Bank collected large fees to keep the Eastern Europe reserves safe. This was all very eye opening for me.

Jim and I had realized early on that we had a close affinity as we analyzed the situation of Romania, and he said, “Call me Jim.” (In contrast I called Professor James Platler “JP.”) As we traveled to observe the situation of the people in different parts of the country, Jim and I formed a deep bond of observing and analyzing; thus both of realized this brief interlude had to continue for the long term in order to achieve our goals.

NEXT STOPS, BUDAPEST, SALZBURG, MUNICH,

BORDEAUX (FOR ME), AND LOS ANGELES (FOR JIM)

As a Romanian, I had the right to enter Hungary, and we did so bypassing the miles of vehicles waiting to cross the border for the long drive to Budapest. There JP finally relaxed after the long drives and often poor hotels and hotels—he said that he finally found unbroken civilization again.

Once we arrived in Budapest, JP, who had told Jim privately that from the outset of our trip that he thought that I was a “Spy” (planted on us by the Romanian Securitate to monitor our many “foreign” inquiries during our travel through Romania’s north country), announced that his concern about me had vanished as we realized the extent of my knowledge and research abilities. In his mind, I had to be a Spy because I had obtained access to special private dining rooms and quarter in some fine hotels, as well as invitations for wonderful lunches at some Monasteries, where miraculously I made immediate friends with each Mother Superior. But by the time we reached Budapest, he realized that at my University I had learned the Elite skills needed to survive safely and comfortably in Eastern Europe.

My problem was to enter Austria, where I had no visa. But Jim passed his UCLA business card through to the Consul General of Austria in Budapest, and quickly we found ourselves whisked from the back of the long line to the front and right into a meeting with the Consul General himself. He was pleased to hear about the research of our UCLA Team, but said that I did have a visa. Jim then told them that I only needed a three-day transit visa to reach Germany, the visa for which he could see in my passport.

With entry to Austria solved, we were on the road to the Hotel Kobentzl and Graz, which overlook Salzburg, all the way analyzing the comparative economic and social situations of Austria, Hungary, and Romania.

We spent most of our time down the mountain from Kobentzl in the valley, before returning to our sweeping Hotel view of Salzburg City. Meanwhile I was deepening my questions about capital is leveraged to undertake big private projects. As we took photos over from on high looking down on the many bridges of Salzburg and Jim was explaining how the developed world operated by using finances, credit, and interest to help economies grow.

Finally we left Salzburg to enter Germany and Munich, where our quick look into Oktoberfest found us among nasty drunken louts each of whom seemingly had hand four hands: one to chug-a-lug beer; one to smoke foul smelling cigarettes; one to quaff horrible-bleeding-raw sausages; and one to punch someone in the face. From what we saw, Oktoberfest was a place for nasty males seeking to “get smashed on beer” and then smash another male to break his nose. Thus, we fled for our lives as the brutes began to threaten anyone who looked at them.

Then on September 30th, I took the plane to from Munich to Paris to take a bus to Bordeaux to meet the family, which had invited me to France.

Jim (and JP) also left the same day for Jim to arrive in time to go from the airplane to open and begin teaching his Fall Quarter class at UCLA. But he promised to call daily and return to join me again in ten weeks.

In the meantime, I made a trip to Paris to request political asylum in France, but a grey-faced judge rejected my request, saying that the petitioner must file with the help of a lawyer.

To complicate matters in Bordeaux, the French Security Agent there was investigating me, a lone woman, as a possible SPY sent by Romania to “monitor activities at the Port of Bordeaux. When he told that, if I pleased him in unmentionable ways, he would not deport me to Romania but arrange my legal status in France, I immediately told Jim on his next telephone call.

To resolve our problem, Jim called his Paris friend Gérard Chaliand, a former visiting professor at UCLA, whose real job involved traveling the world for French Security to report on his professorial travels that took him to all continents. Gérard immediately called French Security to report on the illegal approach to me by their Agent in Bordeaux. That same day the Agent came to apologize profusely to me in the best manner that he could muster in his pitiful condition. He begged me not to have him fired for his proposition to me. I could see him looking at me in truly puzzled way that implicitly said: “Who are you? How did I make such a grave mistake in deciding that you, a lone Romanian women could not have any power to reach my bosses in Paris?” I took pity on him and told him that if he minded manners and watched from affair to be sure that I was always safe, he would not be fired.

JIM RETURNS TO EUROPE DECEMBER, 1991:

HIS PLAN FOR ADVISING EASTERN EUROPEAN CIVIC SOCIETY ABOUT HOW TO GAIN GRANTS FROM U.S. FOUNDATIONS, WHICH HOLD THE WORLD’S LARGEST POOL OF NGO DEVELOPMENT FUNDS

Even though it was December 11,1991, when Jim returned, France was in the midst what some in America call an “Indian Fall,” warm with colorful fall leaves still on the trees. It was a beautifully bright “fall day” when we left Bordeaux the next day to spend some days visiting the Loire River with its many castles and incredible views.

Even during our photography of the Loire region, Jim began to outline his New Plan (now our plan) to wit:

PROFMEX Plan to Help Eastern European “Foundations”

Become legally eligible to gain grants from U.S. Tax Exempt Foundations following Jim’s

“U.S.-Mexico Model for Philanthropy.”

Indeed, Jim told me that recently when he had been in Mexico City, he received an invitation to meet with Manuel Alonso Muñoz, Executive Director of Mexico’s National Lottery,[11] who when he heard about Jim’s U.S.-Mexico Model, invited him to meet at the Lottery’s historically famous ornate building. After an extended briefing by Jim, Manuel told him that he had already called his own good friend Ronald G. Hellman, Professor of Sociology in the Graduate School at the City University of New York, to ask him for an evaluation of Jim and his Mexico-U.S. Model for Philanthropy. Ironically, it was only then when he realized that Ron was (and is today) Jim’s PROFMEX Vice-President for Strategic Planning. With that news and Jim’s stellar briefing, Lic. Alonso asked if the Lottery could make a series of generous grants to PROFMEX in order to help fund the expansion of Jim’s Model to Eastern Europe,[12] putting Mexico into an innovative new light.

Manuel Alonso was appreciative of the fact that Jim, while serving as Consultant to the U.S. Council on Foundations, had become involved since 1990 with his Model for helping Mexican Foundations (including, for example, charities, human rights organizations, hospitals, universities, biospheres, etc.) to re-write their constitution and by-laws to be compatible with the U.S. tax requirement that they mirror U.S. Not-for-Private Profit Organizations (NPPOs).

The question of “mirroring” involved Jim’s explanation that:

As NPPOs, U.S. Foundations are legally responsible for controlling expenditure of funds granted to organizations that do not mirror the U.S. foundations do not want to be involved in the day-to-day activities of its grantees. Indeed, “ they want to transfer “expenditure responsibility” (including misuse or illegal use of grant funds) to the recipient foundation to which they grant funds but can only do so if the grant recipient organization is deemed to have an “equivalent” legal structure to that of the U.S. donor foundation.

Here is the background, according to Jim: [13] “In order to facilitate the U.S. philanthropic activity needed during the 1970s and 1980s to help speed world development, the U.S. Secretary of Treasury and the IRS formulated provisions that resulted in changing and/or interpreting the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) to freely permit U.S. foundations to grant funds abroad, if they meet the following special proviso:

U.S. NPPOs can themselves make a legal “determination” that the foreign organization receiving the U.S. grant be “determined” to be “equivalent” to an NPPO described in Section 501(c)(3)[14] of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code.”

Further, Jim pointed out that, “while this proviso has worked well for big U.S. grant-making foundations that place costly offices and staff around the world (such as Rockefeller and Ford Foundations), it has worked less well for foundations that have had to send their lawyers to meet with their legal counterparts in prospective ‘equivalent organizations, the legal cost of making such a determination often reaching $25,000 [or, by 2016, much, much more] for each new organization to receive funds from the U.S. NPPO. If that determination is favorable, the U.S. NPPO can transfer funds to the equivalent organization, just as it can to any other approved U.S. NPPO, and along with the transfer of funds to the recipient organization goes the transfer of responsibility over how the funds are spent.”

Transfer of ‘Expenditure Responsibility’ from the

U.S. Donor NPPO to the Foreign Recipient NPPO.

The ability of U.S. NPPOs to avoid costly expenditure responsibility, as Jim told, is one of the factors that have helped make American grant-making foundations so important in the world. Thus, U.S. NPPOs have been enabled to avoid becoming ensnarled in accounting processes and audits, which are better done by the foreign organization that receives and administers the U.S. NPPO grant of funds.

In this manner, said Jim, the U.S. NPPO is free to focus its energy on evaluating the substance of its grant programs. The ability of grant-making foundations to transfer Expenditure Responsibility to other NPPOs is the main reason that they generally prefer (and require) that their funds be granted only to approved organizations rather than to individuals or to non-approved organizations.

The above views, Jim said, do not mean that U.S. NPPOs are unable to grant funds to an organization that is not equivalent to a U.S. NPPO (or make grants to individual scholars, artists, or writers either at home or abroad), but to do so adds a complication to the grant-making process. Rather than passing on the Expenditure Responsibility (as the U.S. NPPO does when it makes grants to another NPPO or U.S. equivalent), the Expenditure Responsibility remains with the donor NPPO when it makes a grant to an organization that is not an NPPO (or its U.S. equivalent) or to an individual.

In the unlikely case where the donor NPPO retains Expenditure Responsibility, then, Jim told m in my interview with him on September 17, 1991, the donor foundation has to concern itself with costly financial oversight involved, which may problematic whether of in or outside the USA.

ON TO PARIS AND THE WORLD TO MEET WITH NPPO LEADERS ABOUT NEW FOUNDATIONS

Jim and I arrived in Paris on December 15, 1991, to meet with Jim’s contacts at the American Embassy, who heard about our research and suggested that Jim meet also with their counterparts at the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City. They agreed to help begin to our new Plan to expand to Eastern Europe and Russia Jim’s successful Model for Tax-Free Flow of Nonprofit Funds, the example being what he negotiated (with the U.S. Council on Foundations and the U.S. and Mexican Treasury Departments), as analyzed above.

It is important for me to say here that George Soros and his decentralized donations to his 41 semi-autonomous “national foundations”[15] (exemplified in Romania, Hungary, and Russia) have been built following the IRS proviso and regulations discussed above. Also, Soros’ “National Foundations” require that national Government charter the independent role as NGOs.

In contrast, the flowering of thousands of independent “Foundations” in Eastern Europe since 1989 has grown from groups looking for funds from the many U.S. Foundations that do not have the Soros/New York link with its Foundations in many nations, all of which operate in Soros’ closed loop. Few of these new Foundations have the Soros knowledge and financial resources to set up the By-Laws and Legal Status needed for the thousands Foundations desiring to tap into funding by U.S. Foundations.[16] However, since 2013, Soros’ has organized an office to work with shared Global Funds (for food, migration, etc.) outside the non-Soros frameworks to help poor areas and countries to stave off crises.

Before we left Paris on December 19, 1991, we met with Gérard Chaliand to personally thank him for having made the Bordeaux Security agent reexamine his whole approach to his life.

Further, with Gérard, we worked out a plan to arrange for me to become a U.S. resident and obtain U.S. citizenship nine years after my arrival in Los Angeles, October 1992. He recommended that my case by handled in In Los Angeles by one of America’s most knowledgeable and effective Migration Attorneys—Cynthia Juárez Lange, today Managing Partner, Northern California, for the Fragomen Del Rey, Bernsen & Loewy LLP Legal Office located in San Francisco. Cynthia is a personable genius.

In our travels in December 1991 and from March to June 1992 we met NPPO leaders in the European Union to better understand how foundations work under unique laws in each county rather than in any rational manner for the whole EU, we went to Marseilles, Nice, Villfranche-sur-Mer, Cap-Ferrat, Monaco, La Rochelle, Andorra, Sevilla, Madrid, Trujillo, El Escorial, Avila, and Segovia.

On September 3. 1992, we arrived at the U.S. Consulate in Paris, where the U.S Consulate in Mexico had arranged with Jim for my U.S. eligibility for residence to be issued. Also, the Mexican Consulate General in Paris issued me my residence papers to enter and leave Mexico freely, as arranged by Jim with the Mexican Consular Office in Mexico City.

By September 7, 1992, we were Romania for meetings with Civic Activists in Sighet (where I finally returned after “escaped” with Jim in December 1991).

From March to June 1993, we met with NPPO leaders in Budapest, Sighet, and Varna (Bulgaria), Bucharest, and St. Petersburg.

In Moscow (June 21-14, 1993), Jim appointed Professor Boris Koval (Director of the Latin American Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences), to be PROFMEX Representative in Russia. Koval had invited us to Moscow and introduced us to his own Security Chief to be our translator and guide. Thus Security Chief was a fascinating person who had been former head of the KGB Office in Iran, 1979-1989.

Jim, who always wore his Mexican guayabera shirt with or without a suit, was seen to be “authentically Mexican” in our meetings and discussions about NPPOs and the Soros Open Society Foundations in Russia success in Russia (1987-2002) and problems of the Soros Foundations in Russia since 2003, when, under Government pressure, he was phasing out of operation active programs.

(When on November 30, 2015,[17] Russia’s Prosecutor General’s Office classified the Soros Open Society Foundation as an “undesirable” organization, it closed the possibility of Russian individuals and institutions from having anything to do with any Soros initiative or programs… [Because it constituted] a threat to the foundations of Russia’s Constitutional order and national security….

(Prosecutors [then] launched a probe into Soros Foundation activities….[18] [and
in July 2015], after Russian senators approved the so-called “patriotic stop-list” of 12 groups that required immediate attention over their supposed anti-Russian activities, [the following U.S. organizations] realized that they would soon be banned in Russia: [the U.S.] National Endowment for Democracy; the International Republican Institute; the National Democratic Institute; the MacArthur Foundation, and Freedom House.

The American hedge funds mogul George Soros issued from London the following Press Release on November 30, 2015: [19]

(Contrary to the Russian prosecutor’s allegations, the Open Society Foundations have, for more than a quarter-century, helped to strengthen the rule of law in Russia and protect the rights of all. In the past, Russian officials and citizens have welcomed our efforts, and we regret the changes that have led the government to reject our support to Russian civil society and ignore the aspirations of the Russian people.

Since 1987, Open Society has provided support to countless individuals and civil society organizations, including in the fields of science, education, and public health. Open Society has helped finance a network of internet centers in 33 universities around the country, helped Russian scholars to travel and study abroad, developed curricula for early childhood education, and created a network of contemporary art centers that are still in operation.

(This record speaks for itself. We are honored to have worked alongside pioneering citizens, educators, and civil society organizations that embody Russian creativity, commitment, and hope.

(“We are confident that this move is a temporary aberration; the aspirations of the Russian people for a better future cannot be suppressed and will ultimately succeed,” said George Soros, founder and chairman of the Open Society Foundations.) Despite all efforts made by Soros and his organizations, he has been banned from Russia.

Once with the reset of the Cold War, in 2012, when Putin was reelected as Russia’s President, Putin’s first movement was to ban all Soros organizations which were impeding his expansion onto Crimeea.

Back in Mexico City for the 1994 PROFMEX Event featuring Eastern Europeans interested in the U.S.-Mexico Model for NPPOs, we convened, July 28-29, for our meeting on “Development of Mexico as seen from the World,” Co-sponsored by UCLA and Mexico’s Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología.

This Conference was held at Mexico City’s María Isabel Sheraton, with 70 participants from Mexico and the United States, and which I co-organized with Jim

The following invitees from Eastern Europe came from

Hungary

Zoltan Karpati, Professor of Sociology

Romania

Mihai Coman, University Dean

Roman Romulus, Consul General in Mexico

Alexandru Lazín, PROFMEX– England and Romania

Lia Stan, Investor from Bristol, England.

Highlights of the event came frequently as we turned our gaze from Salón A with his all-window view from the top floor to discuss the anti-government protest marches up and down Reforma Avenue past the Angel Monument below.

Further, our group enjoyed the invitation of Mexico’s Attorney General, Jorge Madrazo Cuéllar to visit him at his headquarters where we personally discussed and raised questions about the street blockages in front of our María Isabella Hotel.

In December 1997, we continued to invite world scholars especially interested in economic matters, as well as in the U.S.-Mexico NPPO Model to participate with us at the:

IX PROFMEX-ANUIES Conference

hosted by Governor Víctor Manuel Tinoco Rubí in Morelia, Michoacán.

México y el Mundo

Mexico and the World

December 8-13, 1997

With hundreds of participants and Attendees from all continents,

Special Guests were invited from:

Russia: Boris Koval, who recalled with excitement the visit of

Jim and I to Moscow in June 1993.

China: Sengen Zhang

Hongzhu Huang

Korea: Kap-Young Jeong

Japan: Soichi Shinohara

Osamu Nishimura

Yasuoki Takagi

Indonesia: Lepi T. Tarmidi

Argentina: Eugenio O. Valenciano

Bolivia: Antonio J. Cisneros

Get Rid Of Toenail Gungus

Method 1: Apple Cider Vinegar and Epsom Salt

Things you need:

  • Apple cider vinegar – 1 tbsp
  • Epsom salts- ½ cup
  • Water- 1cup

Things you need to do:

  1. Take ½ cup of Epsom salt and to it add1 tbsp of apple cider vinegar and 1 cup of hot water.
  2. Mix all the ingredients well.
  3. Allow the temperature of the water to come down. Here, the vital aspect is to ensure that the skin is able to withstand the heat.
  4. Soak your toenail in the water and remain in the same position for 25 to 30 minutes.
  5. Repeat the process twice a day and very soon you will remark ‘this is the best cure for toenail fungus.’

Method 2: Apple Cider Vinegar Oral Intake

Things you need:

  • Organic apple cider vinegar- 2 tbsp
  • Warm water- 8 ounces
  • Honey – 1tsp

Things you need to do:

  1. Take 8 ounces of warm water and mix 2 tbsp of organic apple cider vinegar in it.
  2. Add 1 tsp of honey to the mixture and stir well.
  3. Consume the preparation regularly and get a right response to your query ‘how do I get rid of toenail fungus.’

Method 3: Apple Cider Vinegar Scrub

You can also make a scrub with apple cider vinegar for the removal of toenail fungus.

Things you need:

  • Grounded rice flour – 3 tbsp
  • Apple cider vinegar- 3tbsp

Things you need to do:

  1. Take 3 tbsp each of grounded rice flour and apple cider vinegar.
  2. Mix both the ingredients properly to form a paste.
  3. Put the paste on the infected region and rub gently.
  4. Repeat this process once in every 2 days and you will regain the softness of the skin around your toenail. In fact, the scrub even eliminates the perished cells of the skin.
  5. Following this process regularly will help you to get rid of toenail fungus soon.

2. Tea Tree Oil for Toenail Fungus

This remedy is another reliable option for people seeking for a natural remedy for toenail fungus as tea tree oil has antifungal and antiseptic properties.

Method 1: Tea Tree Oil Soak

Things you need:

  • Tea tree oil- 1 tsp
  • Cotton ball- 1

Things you need to do:

  1. Take 1 tsp of tea tree oil and put it on a cotton ball.
  2. Rub the cotton ball slowly on the fungus infected site of your toenail for around 15 minutes.
  3. Now, take a toothbrush and gently scrub the infected nail.
  4. Follow the process regularly to cure toenail fungus fast.

Method 2: Tea Tree, Orange, Olive and Grapeseed Oil

This method is an excellent way of treating toenail fungus. This is due to the antifungal properties of the 3 ingredients: tea tree, grapeseed and orange oil. On the other hand, olive oil offers a moisturizing and soothing effect to the skin.

Things you need:

  • Tea tree oil- 1 tsp
  • Orange oil – ½ tsp
  • Olive oil – ½ tsp
  • Grapeseed oil- ½ tsp
  • Cotton ball- 1
  • A small bowl

Things you need to do:

  1. Take 1 tsp of tea tree oil and½ tsp each of olive, orange and grapeseed oil in a small bowl.
  2. Mix all the oils properly.
  3. Then, take a cotton ball and dip it in the mixed oil.
  4. Rub the cotton ball slowly on the infected nail.
  5. Allow the solution to penetrate deep into the skin around the toenail.
  6. Follow the process regularly and you will shortly know that this is among the best natural remedies for toenail fungus.

3. Baking Soda

Baking SodaBaking soda is an easily available toenail fungus medicine as it is an integral part of almost every kitchen. It is highly effective in treating the condition as the alkalinity of baking sodastops the infection from spreading further.

Method 1: Baking Soda with Hydrogen Peroxide, Epsom Salt and White Vinegar

Here, you have few other ingredients that complement baking soda. Hydrogen peroxide oxygenates the infected site and the acidic character of white vinegar significantly reduces the itching sensation. Similarly, the sulfate and magnesium content of Epsom salt also combat the skin condition.

Things you need:

  • Baking soda- ½ cup
  • Hydrogen peroxide (3%) – ¼ cup
  • Epsom salt- ½ cup
  • White vinegar- ¼ cup
  • Hot water- 4 cups
  • A container

Things you need to do:

  1. Take a container with 4 cups of hot water in it.
  2. Add ½ cup each of baking soda and Epsom salt and ¼ cup of hydrogen peroxide (3%) to it and stir properly.
  3. Now, add ¼ cup of white vinegar to the hot water and mix well.
  4. Soak the infected toenail in this mixed water for around 10 minutes.
  5. Then, wash the foot with normal water and then allow it to dry.
  6. Repeat the process 2 times a week to clear up toenail fungus.

Method 2: Baking Soda with Borax Powder

Just like baking soda, the borax powder is an antifungal substance that checks the further spreading of the toenail fungus. As this method combines both these substances, you are assured of toenail fungus removal soon.

Things you need:

  • Baking soda- ½ cup
  • Borax powder- ½ cup
  • Water- 1 cup

Things you need to do:

  1. Take1 cup of water and add ½ cup each of baking soda and borax powder to it.
  2. Mix the ingredients thoroughly to make a fine paste.
  3. Apply this mixture to the infected site twice a day.
  4. Follow the process daily and you will then say confidently that ‘ I know how to treat toenail fungus.’

Method 3: Baking Soda with Water

You can prepare a paste to cure toenail fungus by using just baking soda and water.

Things you need:

  • Baking soda- 1 cups
  • Warm water- ½ cup

Things you need to do:

  1. Take ½ cup of warm water and add 1 cups of baking soda to it.
  2. Mix them properly to make a paste.
  3. Spread the paste on the infected toenail and wait for about 15 minutes.
  4. Then, wash the affected site with normal water and dry it with a tidy cloth.
  5. Follow the process twice every day until you succeed in removing toenail fungus.

Method 4: Baking Soda with Apple Cider Vinegar

In this method, you bring together the antimicrobial properties of apple cider vinegar and the alkaline nature of baking soda to cure toenail fungus. It is one of the best toenail fungus treatments that you can use.

Things you need:

  • Baking soda- 1 cup
  • Apple cider vinegar- 1 cup
  • Water- 2 bowls

Things you need to do:

  1. Take 1 bowl of water and add 1 cup of apple cider vinegar to it and mix thoroughly.
  2. Now, soak the infected toenail in the bowl for around 20 minutes.
  3. Take out your toe from the bowl.
  4. Dry the affected nail with a tidy paper towel.
  5. Then, put 1 cup of baking soda in another bowl of water and mix properly.
  6. Soak the affected toenail in this water for around 20 minutes.
  7. Dry the infected toe with a clean paper towel.
  8. Follow the process two times daily and you will find a right solution to cure toenail fungus.

[Also Read:Home Remedies for Foot Pain]

4. Listerine for Toenail Fungus

Listerine mouthwash is one more dependable solution to cure toenail fungus because Listerine is a very powerful antiseptic, which works at a rapid pace to eliminate the fungus, thus cures the condition effectively.

Things you need:

  • Listerine mouthwash- 40 ml
  • Warm water- 2 cups

Things you need to do:

  1. Add 40 ml of Listerine mouthwash to 2 cups of warm water and mix properly.
  2. Soak the affected toenail in the warm water for around 30 minutes.
  3. Repeat the process regularly to remove toenail fungus.

5. How to Get Rid of Toenail Fungus Fast with Coconut Oil

Coconut OilThe commonly available coconut oil is another good natural remedy for toenail fungus, especially for people who do not prefer usage of strong chemicals.

The fatty acids present in coconut oil deeply penetrate into the fungal membrane and attack the lipids. This automatically leads to the death of the fungus and helps to treat this condition fast.

Things you need:

  • Coconut oil- 2 tbsp
  • Soap- 1

Things you need to do:

  1. Take 2 tbsp of coconut oil.
  2. Rub the oil gently on the affected region.
  3. Then, allow the oil 15-20 minutes to penetrate deep into the infected area.
  4. Repeat the process thrice every day and you will soon see that coconut oil is an effective toenail fungus treatment.

6. How to Treat Toenail Fungus at Home with Garlic

GarlicGarlic is another reliable home remedy for toenail fungus as it contains allicin, which helps to combat toenail fungal infections.

Method 1: Garlic Oil and White Vinegar for Toenail Fungus

This remedy brings together the powerful properties of garlic and white vinegar. The acidic nature of vinegar nicely complements garlic in alleviating the itching sensation in the infected toenail. Also, white vinegar stabilizes the pH balance of the skin, which is very important for toenail fungus removal.

Things you need:

  • Garlic oil- 2 tbsp
  • White vinegar- 2 tbsp
  • Elastic bandage- 1

Things you need to do:

  1. Mix 2 tbsp of garlic oil with 2 tbsp of white vinegar.
  2. Spread the mixture gently on the affected toenail and the adjoining site.
  3. Cover the nail and its surrounding region with an elastic bandage.
  4. The treatment provides relief from toenail fungus pain in about 4 hours.

Method 2: Garlic Cloves and Olive Oil

This excellent home remedy for toenail fungus has used garlic cloves and olive oil together. Olive oil is an excellent antifungal and antiseptic agent and hence assures you of quick recovery from this infection.

Things you need

  • Garlic cloves- 3
  • Olive oil- 2 tbsp

Things you need to do

  1. Take 3 garlic cloves and crush them.
  2. Add the crushed cloves into 2 tbsp of olive oil.
  3. Wait for about 7 minutes.
  4. Now, take the mixture and spread it on the infected toenail.
  5. Leave it for 20 minutes to penetrate deep into the infected nail and the surrounding skin.
  6. Alternatively, you can also consume 1 garlic clove daily to boost your immunity power and prevent toenail fungus from occurring again.

7. Lavender Oil

Lavender OilWhen you are seeking the best home remedies for toenail fungus, you should not ignore lavender oil. This oil has powerful antiseptic properties. These properties not only attack the fungal infection but also check it to occur again.

This remedy also includes the tea tree oil for its antifungal properties.

Things you need:

  • Lavender oil- 1 tbsp
  • Tea tree oil- 1 tbsp
  • Cotton ball- 1
  • Gauze – 1
  • Or woolen socks- 1 pair

Things you need to do:

  1. Prepare a mixture by taking 1 tbsp each of tea tree and lavender oil.
  2. Stir the mixture thoroughly and then heat it slightly.
  3. Now, dip a cotton ball into this solution.
  4. Take the cotton ball and slowly put the solution on the infected nail and the adjoining sites before going to bed.
  5. Cover the sites with either a woolen sock or gauze and leave them undisturbed for the whole night.
  6. Repeat the process for around 5 days to make sure that the fungus is fully removed.

[Also Read:How to Heal Cracked Feet]

8. Oregano Oil for Toenail Fungus

Oregano OilThis remedy combines the benefits of oregano and tea tree oil for curing toenail fungus. The analgesic and antiseptic properties of oregano oil combats microorganisms while the antifungal properties of tea tree oil check the further spreading of the infection.

Things you need:

  • Oregano oil- 1 tbsp
  • Pure olive oil- 1 tbsp
  • A small bowl

Things you need to do:

  1. Take 1 tbsp each of pure olive oil and oregano oil in a small bowl.
  2. Mix both the oils properly.
  3. Spread the mixed oil on the infected regions.
  4. Now, wait for minimum ½ hour and wash the area.
  5. Allow the foot to dry naturally.
  6. Repeat the process twice daily for 3 weeks to kill toenail fungus.

9. Lemon Juice to Treat Toenail Fungus

Lemon JuiceWhen you speak of how to treat toenail fungus at home, this remedy based on lemon juice needs to be tried once. Lemon juice is a rich source of antiseptic and antifungal properties and also consists of citric acid. This acid ensures that the fungal infection is kept under check.

Method 1: Lemon Juice with Warm Water

Things you need:

  • Fresh lemon juice- 1 tbsp
  • Warm water- 2 cups
  • Clean towel- 1
  • Cotton ball -1

Things you need to do:

  1. Take 1 tbsp of fresh lemon juice and apply it on the affected portion with the help of a cotton ball.
  2. Wait for about 15 minutes and then wash the infected site with warm water.
  3. Then, dry it with a clean towel.
  4. Repeat the process once every day for 30 days to cure toenail fungus naturally.

Method 2: Lemon Juice and Olive Oil

This method blends the curative properties of lemon juice and olive oil, which is another powerful antifungal agent. Here, lemon juice arrests the fungus while olive oil softens the skin.

Things you need

  • Olive oil- 2 tbsp
  • Fresh lemon juice- 2 tbsp
  • A small bowl
  • Cotton ball -1

Things you need to do

  1. Take 2 tbsp each of olive oil and fresh lemon juice in a small bowl.
  2. Mix both the ingredients thoroughly.
  3. Gently rub the mixture on the affected toenail and the adjoining sites with the help of a cotton ball.
  4. Repeat the process daily to treat toenail fungus.

10. How to Get Rid of Toenail Fungus Naturally with Orange Oil

Orange oil is among the most trusted natural cures for toenail fungus as it is a rich source of antifungal properties. When you combine orange oil with grapeseed oil, which is loaded with antiseptic properties, the remedy is sure to kill toenail fungus.

Grapeseed oil cures both the fungal infection as well as repairs the affected tissues.

Things you need:

  • Pure orange oil- 1 tbsp
  • Grapeseed oil- 1 tbsp
  • Cotton ball- 1
  • A small bowl

Things you need to do:

  1. Take 1 tbsp each of pure orange and grapeseed oil in a small bowl.
  2. Mix both the oils properly.
  3. Now, dip a cotton ball in the mixture and apply it on the infected nail.
  4. Allow it 15 – 20 minutes to penetrate deep into the infected toenail.
  5. Repeat the process once every day until you remove toenail fungus

11. Olive Leaf Extract

A rich source of antibiotic and antioxidant properties, olive leaf extract plays a key role in the treatment of toenail fungus. The extract also repairs the skin that surrounds the toenail.

Things you need:

  • Olive leaf extract- 1 tbsp
  • Cotton ball – 1

Things you need to do:

  1. Take 1 tbsp of olive leaf extract.
  2. Spread it on the affected nail with the help of a cotton ball.
  3. Follow the process daily and very soon you no longer have to bother with the issue ‘what to do for toenail fungus’.

12. Cornmeal to Get Rid of Toenail Fungus

Organic corn meal is another dependable home remedy for toenail fungus. Corn has a kind of fungus that causes no harm to humans but effectively combats the skin condition.

Things you need:

  • Cornmeal- 1 cup
  • Water- 5 cups
  • A container

Things you need to do:

  1. Take 1 cup of cornmeal and 5 cups of water in a container.
  2. Wait for minimum 1 hour.
  3. Now, put the affected foot in the cornmeal water for about 30 minutes.
  4. Then, remove the foot from the container and dry it.
  5. Follow the process regularly and you will see that it is a good cure for toenail fungus.

Dietary Guidelines to Cure and Prevent Toenail Fungus

For complete treatment of toenail fungus, it is necessary that you follow these dietary guidelines along with the remedies:

Dos

  • Include plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables in your daily diet to enhance your immunity power.
  • Take meat, brown rice, fish and oats.
  • Take probiotic food as it contains good bacteria.

Don’ts

  • Avoid consuming refined carbohydrates found in foods like pasta and white bread.
  • Keep away from mushrooms, dried fruit, cheese, peanut and soy sauce.
  • Refrain from the intake of alcoholic beverages.

Additional Tips

Along with the home remedies for toenail fungus that were described above, you need to make a note of the following tips to treat as well as prevent this toenail fungus completely.

  • Make sure to trim and clean the nails regularly.
  • Do not allow the nails to be wet for too long.
  • Use synthetic socks as they reduce the moisture on your feet.
  • Do not use closed footwear until you fully recover from this infection.
  • Refrain from directly touching the skin surrounding the site of toenail fungus.
  • Do not use artificial nails and nail polish.
  • Apply Vicks Vaporub on the infected site two times daily. It contains thymol, which is effective in killing the toenail fungus.
  • Use a mouthwash on the infected toenail regularly as its antiseptic property eliminates the fungus.

Now you possess exhaustive knowledge on the home remedies for toenail fungus. Use any of the home remedies that are mentioned here to keep the toenail fungus at bay. Drop in a few words as to how these home remedies helped you to treat toenail fungus.

Dr Olga

http://www.olgalazin.com

My Blog: http://olgaandreimagda.blogspot.com

HYDROGEN’S POWER As Anti-Oxidant: Get It! Hydrogenated Water

HYDROGEN

Description

The antioxidant power of hydrogen was investigated by Hungarian Albert Szent-Györgyi, who later won the Nobel Prize for discovering the antioxidant activity of vitamin C.

In fact, in his December 11th, 1937, Nobel lecture, Albert Szent-Györgyi declared:

“…our body really only knows one fuel, hydrogen.”

…Quite an amazing revelation considering free hydrogen is found in the plasma of our very own sun, helping it glow.

So what makes it so powerful?

THE FIVE REASONS WHY HYDROGEN IS
THE ULTIMATE ANTIOXIDANT

  1. It’s been proven to fight the strongest oxidizing chemical of all: the Hydroxyl radical, which is a major villain in DNA damage.
  2. But more than just sheer power, hydrogen’s health benefits are also quite delicate: It doesn’t react with other oxidizing agents, which are actually beneficial to your body.
  3. It also doesn’t disturb necessary metabolic reactions or disrupt cell signaling.
  4. Because it’s so small, hydrogen can penetrate the important parts of your body that need revitalizing the most, like your mitochondria (the powerhouse of your cells) and nucleus. Without a powerful antioxidant like hydrogen, dangerous free radicals can flourish here.
  5. Hydrogen is able to pass through the blood-brain barrier, and may improve your brain health with its antioxidant power

So is it possible to get this super-antioxidant for yourself?

And with the proper DELIVERY system to safely and naturally penetrate all the cells of your body — including your brain?

Sounds like a pretty tall order. And until a few short decades ago, this was literally impossible unless you were willing to journey deep into the wilderness and find certain exotic springs yourself. (You’ll discover why in a moment.)

But a scientific breakthrough, perfected by Japanese scientists, has transformed this fantasy into something you can access quickly and conveniently, right in the comfort of your own home.

So what is this fountain of youth?

It’s a certain form of…

WATER!

And I say a “certain” form because regular water is closer to a fountain of DEATH… than youth.

Doesn’t matter if it goes through a reverse-osmosis filter…

Doesn’t matter if it’s bottled by a fancy company for an even fancier price…

…It just doesn’t matter. The water in your home and the water you can buy in the store is not even close to this fountain of youth.

It’s dead water.

How could it not be?

Any kind of water you drink from a regular faucet or most bottles has been through miles of corroding metal pipes. Oftentimes they’re filled with rat feces and other nasty pollutants.

Think it’s just fear-mongering? I’ll show you proof of how oxidizing most water is in just a moment. First, consider this:

A three-year investigation by the Environmental Working Group of 20 million water quality tests performed over a five-year period revealed our nation’s water contains 316 identified contaminants.

Of those, 202 do not have any established safety standards.

Other disturbing findings of this investigation:

  • 37% of the 47,677 water systems analyzed had zero records for testing unregulated contaminants
  • The EPA only requires testing for a fraction of the hundreds of unregulated drinking water pollutants
  • 252,000,000 Americans have been supplied water containing poisons at levels above the maximum standards for safety

In order for this water to be fit for human consumption, it goes through a harsh chemical process where additives kill lifeforms within the water, and poisons like lye are added in order to adjust the pH. (This is done to protect the metal pipes from rotting — it has nothing to do with your safety.)

DON’T THINK YOU’RE SAFE BY
DRINKING BOTTLED WATER EITHER

The Natural Resources Defense Council undertook an exhaustive four-year investigation, which included:

  • Reviewing published and unpublished literature and data sources
  • Contacting states for bottled water quality surveys
  • Contacting members of the FDA
  • Partnering with three independent laboratories to test more than 1,000 bottles of water distributed by 103 different brands

Their lab results for bottled water indicated:

  • 4% violated federal standards
  • 17% violated state guidelines
  • 22% violated state enforceable limits

Description

And a study published in the Canadian Journal of Microbiology found that even after just seven days of storage, the bacteria count in bottled water can explode a full 1,000 times greater.

And consider this for a moment:

Were you really meant to drink water that has been sitting around in a giant tank, or flowing through man-made pipes? Have you ever considered if this water is really the same as that found in the most pristine natural springs of the world, where the water is rumored to have special healing powers?

Turns out, your intuition was right:

THERE IS A “CERTAIN SOMETHING”
THAT IS DIFFERENT ABOUT
THIS DEAD WATER, AND IT’S
ACCELERATING YOUR AGING

The good news is, you can turn this around by drinking water that’s truly “alive” and promotes your health and longevity. I’ll show you exactly what kind this is very soon.

But the key is it must be prepared in the right way. A groundbreaking study by the Kajiyama Clinic in Japan showed this.

More on that in a moment. First, in order to explain what this certain kind of water is, I have to tell you about a scientific process called ionization:

Ionization is changing an atom or molecule into an “ion” by adding or removing electrons. To create the fountain-of-youth water, some hydrogen atoms are “freed” from the water. (Remember in science class how water is H2O? Well, the H stands for hydrogen.)

The hydrogen is freed up by flowing the water through a special filtration process to ionize the water, which subtly changes the water at the molecular level. The secret is the special use of magnesium, which is used in a certain way within this device to gently react with the water.

Here’s the equation for what happens:

Description

I realize this might look complicated to anyone who isn’t passionate about chemistry, but you only need to know the basics:

Notice how the right side ends with H2? That’s the free hydrogen.

Now that the free hydrogen has been temporarily created, you simply drink the water which is saturated and alive with it, so the hydrogen can enter your body.

But because you’ve been drinking nothing but dead water, you haven’t gotten the benefits of this free hydrogen.

IT’S NO WONDER YOU’RE EXHAUSTED!
YOU’VE BEEN MISSING OUT ON THE
ENERGY YOUR BODY IS DESIGNED
TO HAVE EVERY DAY!

Think about it: Have you ever drank water that has gone through this unique process before? There’s virtually zero chance.

And yet…nothing could be more natural than this alive water. Consider the exotic mountain springs renowned for their rejuvenating powers. I have a theory that the legends of this sort of water is grounded in scientific fact.

Think about this:

The water in these springs seeps through layers of rock towards the surface, which might create free hydrogen. Human beings were meant to drink this kind of water.

Like I said before, hard science is beginning to prove this is true:

12 different animal studies have confirmed hydrogen-rich water has a powerful, positive effect on multiple organs, including the heart, kidneys, brain,and the ears. It was also shown to help promote a healthy weight as well.

Of course, those are just animal studies.

However…

WE NOW HAVE MULTIPLE HUMAN
STUDIES SHOWING THIS WATER
IS A HEALTH MIRACLE:

In a small study published in the Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, scientists found eight weeks of drinking hydrogen-rich water lowered the oxidative stress of the volunteers. Another human study in Japan confirmed these antioxidant benefits.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study performed by the Kajiyama Clinic in Japan found the free hydrogen-rich water reduced oxidative stress and lead to other surprising changes associated with youth.

Taken together, these lab results show that…

Instead Of Oxidizing And Aging Your Body,
This Certain Kind Of Water Literally
Becomes A Powerful Antioxidant

Regular tap water is just the opposite — a PRO-oxidant that ages your body, just like an apple turns brown within minutes after you take a bite out of it.

Description

This can easily be proven with something called an ORP meter, which stands for Oxidation Reduction Potential. This device actually measures (in number value) how much a liquid either reduces the potential for oxidation, or creates oxidation.

In other words, it helps indicate how much of a healthy antioxidant a liquid is, or an unhealthy pro-oxidant. A major pharmaceutical company is even trying to corner the market on this technology, because it’s so groundbreaking for your health.

In fact, I used an ORP meter to test some of the most popular brands of bottled water, some of which are even advertised as healthy.

AND NOW I’LL SHOW YOU
THE RESULTS, ON LIVE VIDEO:

Wistia video thumbnail - LFW_Turapitch_VIDEO_02_073015

SO WHAT IS THE AMAZING MACHINE
THAT PRODUCES THIS UNIQUE WATER?

Well, the first machine I got my hands on creates this water through a process called electrolysis. It worked very well, but there were two problems:

  1. It had poor filtering capabilities, so I was still drinking water that didn’t taste very good.
  2. It costs almost $4,000!

So I began to research — and it was a grueling process. I felt like I was going down a rabbit hole.

But finally I made another discovery:

In the last couple years, this technology has made another leap forward. Think of your smartphone: It contains a computer so powerful, just a few years ago, the hardware would take up your entire desk. But now it fits into the palm of your hand.

The same thing has happened with this water device. And I had to search outside the United States entirely to find it. That’s because in Ontario, Canada, a pioneer of healthy water has been quietly improving on this technology.

So I got in touch with him. As we spoke, I realized our philosophy matched up perfectly: Produce the best antioxidant water possible, while keeping the prices reasonable for anyone.

So I was thrilled to discover this water technology can now fit inside of a simple pitcher.

It produces this fountain of youth naturally (no electrolysis involved) and has components with top-notch filtering capabilities. So it both filters and ionizes water (which creates free hydrogen) using ordinary tap water.

In fact, this new pitcher literally replicates the way water is supposed to be in nature when you drink it fresh from a pristine mountain stream.

All you have to do is place the pitcher under your faucet, turn the water on, and fill it with regular tap water. Within moments, the pitcher will transform the regular water into the invigorating, healthy fountain of youth water. Then you can pour it into a glass to drink.

It doesn’t get any simpler than that. Armed with this convenient pitcher, and you’ll be able to drink this water whenever you like. Plus it’s BPA-free.

More good news:

I struck a deal with Laissez Faire to make this machine available to readers like yourself. Not only that, but because of a special arrangement with the supplier (which bypasses the usual route of a retail store) you can get this device at an absolute bargain.

So don’t worry, your investment will just be a fraction of $4,000. I’ll explain the details in a moment. First, here’s how it works:

THERE ARE TWO STAGES:

Description

Stage 1:

WATER FROM YOUR FAUCET PASSES THROUGH A SPECIAL FILTERING LAYER

First, the three special filtering components strip out bad tastes and odors and makes it a pleasure to drink.

The initial layer of filtration is a layer of NSF-certified activated carbon.

Description

Stage 2:

WATER IS ENRICHED BY A COMBINATION OF THREE ELEMENTS

In this stage certain minerals enrich the water and hydrogen is freed for your body to use.

This is done by a specific combination of three elements:

Description

Magnesium

Description

Infrared Ceramics

Description

Tourmaline

First, the magnesium frees up some of the hydrogen. Remember the equation from before?

Description

On the left side of the equation is magnesium and regular water. When they’re combined in a certain way, the magnesium atoms will attract some of the oxygen atoms, and they will pair together. Because of this, the hydrogen atoms will split from the oxygen.

This allows them to act as bodyguards, throwing themselves into the line of fire and stopping the oxidative and aging process in trillion of your cells.

And finally, the water goes through an additional stage to activate higher levels of free hydrogen, based on a study published in the Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.

It’s composed of a combination of infrared ceramics and a certain kind of gemstone.

But this is no ordinary stone. It’s called tourmaline,and it’s this device’s secret to…

Description

This special stone is this device’s secret to refreshing, energizing, ionized water. this water has the special age-combating antioxidant potential that "dead water" will never have.

…TRANSFORMING THE WATER INTO THE HYDROGEN-RICH, ANTIOXIDANT
FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH!

Which is why Laissez Faire has named this remarkable machine the Turapür Pitcher. It stands for the pure-tasting water it produces, and the tourmaline stones it uses to transform that water into your own powerful anti-aging elixir on tap.

When you drink it, your body breaks down the hydrogen (using enzymes called hydrogenases) into single hydrogen ions, which seek out free radicals in your body’s 37.2 trillion cells.

YOU GET THE BENEFITS WHENEVER
YOU TAKE A REFRESHING SIP

Description

  • Transforms water into a hydrogen-rich, antioxidant fountain of youth!
  • Removes bad taste and odors.
  • Frees up hydrogen in the water to create a powerful antioxidant.
  • And helps you feel, function, and look younger by turning back the clocks in your cells.

Although a bargain, this machine is NOT cheap. Quality never is. But frankly, for the health benefits this amazing water provides, I’d happily fork over $4,000…even if I had to do so in payments over a long time. In fact, that’s exactly what I did, for a machine that didn’t filter nearly as well.

But like I said before, because of a special arrangement I’ve made with Laissez Faire, you won’t have to invest anything close to $4,000.

Or $3,000.

Or $2,000.

Or $1,000.

And, not even one-tenth of $4,000 either.

In fact, you can get the Turapϋr Pitcher for just $59.95.

And you’ll also receive free enrollment in our Priority Pass program. With this membership, you won’t go a day without this amazing water energizing every cell in your body.

Here’s how it works:

Today, we’ll rush your Turapür pitcher to you with a new filter inside. This filter will last you a full 60 days.

Then, in 60 days, we’ll send you a fresh pack of three filters, and your credit card will be billed the Priority Pass membership price of $45. From there, we’ll send you a new pack of filters every six months.

Because each pack of filters lasts six months, your Priority Pass membership comes out to just 25 measly cents a day. And you can cancel at any time.

Frankly…for the life-changing benefits this technology provides…it’s a no-brainer.

Compare it to the $1.50 you would pay for just one bottle of water. If you drink only three per day, that adds up to $270 every two months. And it and still doesn’t have the benefits of ionization..

If you do the math for your whole family, you might be looking at $810 for a two-month supply. It’s insane.

But now you have the option for better water for a better price.

SKIP YOUR MORNING COFFEE (WHICH
WILL BE MUCH EASIER ONCE YOU START
DRINKING THIS POWERFUL WATER) AND
YOUR MACHINE’S MORE THAN PAID FOR

Because I know you believe your health is priceless, and only the best will do, I am beyond excited for how this machine is going to change your life.
You won’t be the first, either. Here’s some feedback we’ve received from the first group of people lucky enough to get their hands on a Turapur before it sold out for the first time:

Wes 8/9/15

So far so good! Truly tasteless water without any after taste. Abundance of energy throughout the day. Amazing! My whole family drinks the water. My wife wasn’t a big believer, until one day she was amazed at the amount of work around the house she had completed. It must be the water! I love the water, its taste, and the energy it gives you is unbelievable."

George 8/6/15

Great taste and very smooth. More energy and better feel for it than just filtered water – must be the hydrogen. I noticed not long after drinking a sensation around the temples and thought it must be from the free hydrogen.

It’s a great energy booster. I’m very pleased with it and hope its effects continue regularly."

Mike 8/10/15

Tastes sweeter and is easy to consume so I get more water than with other ‘water’."

Matt 8/4/15

I have not had it all that long but I notice a definite increase in energy and endurance."

Greg M 8/11/15

"The water seemed clearer. It is early as yet but I think I feel a little stronger and more energetic. I have had trouble drinking plain water before. I just didn’t like the taste. This water tastes fine to me and I have no problem drinking it.

I have some with my one cup of coffee in the morning and once I’m out the door and working (outside in the Georgia heat) then I drink it most until I finish with work. It is better for your health and wellbeing."

Sue 7/25/15

"Delicious! Smooth. I feel calmer. Been drinking the reverse osmosis water for decades and like the taste of the Turapur better. Never want to drink anything else."

Marcel (86 years old) 8/5/15

"First, the taste is great. In French we would say VELOUTE. Good increase in my energy level. And that compares to our well water (down 500 feet) that was already top quality. Would recommend this filter to anyone particularly to all those who are selecting bottled water."

Dorothy 8/10/15

"My Turapur was easy to install and is very convenient. Since I am comparatively healthy at 88 I still think it will improve my health. The water tastes great and there is no loss of water. I do seem to have a little more energy, though it wasn’t immediate.

I have had several purifiers. Many were large and unwieldy and required flushing. I like this because it is a one step process."

Glinda 8/13/15

"I noticed feeling less tired within a few days. I did stop drinking it for 5 days just as a test and started up again. It is not a life changing difference but it is nice to have a bit more energy during the day. I decided to keep it."

Matt 7/26/15

"After drinking the water I noticed a slight effervescence – almost a tingling feeling on my palate. I don’t know why but I’ve found my energy levels are higher. I don’t need that nap after work like I normally took.

I appreciate you including the adapters for different types of faucets. I’m going to brew some beer with the filter water (just a few gallons) and see how that works. If the end result tastes great (why wouldn’t it) I’ll name my beer ‘Liquid Hydrogen IPA.’"

Now’s your chance to feel more energy and improve your health like the folks you just heard from.

TO GET YOUR PITCHER RUSHED
TO YOU, CLICK THE ORANGE ADD TO CART BUTTON BELOW

And as you do, picture this:

Imagine you’re living in the world thousands of years ago, before any modern technology or pollution.

You wake up in your home, high in the mountains or near the ocean. Before eating breakfast, you go outside.

Right in your backyard is a quiet stream. Natural rainfall, and melting snow from higher altitudes, flows down towards you, rushing and bubbling over the mineral-filled rocks.

You walk down right next to the stream, scoop some water into your hands, and drink. In mere moments you FEEL the water energizing you.

Description

THIS…is what water is supposed to deliver you every day…and how it’s supposed to feel for you. This is why we build our homes near it, why we decorate our buildings with it, and why we love it so much. Deep down inside we instinctively realize how vital it is and how good it can make us feel.

Now, even in modern times, YOU can get the kind of water you are meant to drink.

But you must jump on this immediately.

Your fellow readers might already be rushing to get their hands on the Turapürs we have in stock…and they won’t last long.

Because this is a physical device (as opposed to a book), we simply cannot produce them in large quantities.

Our initial supply is only 500 units. We will almost certainly sell out fast.

As quickly as we’ll scramble to get more in stock, our supplier can only produce a certain amount of these quality machines at a time.

This is strictly first come, first served.

Get in on this right now.

Reserve your Turapür and get it rushed to you, before word spreads and our current stock sells out.

Click the button below. Claim this fountain of youth for yourself. And prepare to be amazed.

Sincerely,

Description

Nate Rifkin
Laissez Faire Underground Health Researcher

ADD TO CART

P.S: The bottom line is, the components in the first stage of the Turapür remove bad tastes and odors and make the water taste like it just bubbled out of a fresh, natural spring.

Then in the second stage, certain minerals enrich the water and hydrogen is freed for your body to use.

The combination of magnesium plus infrared ceramics and tourmaline stones activates higher levels of free hydrogen, as shown in a study published in the Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.

As A Result, The Water
Is Transformed Into The Hydrogen-Rich,
Antioxidant Fountain Of Youth

You get the benefits whenever you take a refreshing sip.

If you have more questions about how the Turapϋr works and how easy it is to use, click the Add to Cart button to read some frequently asked questions and answers. You can still decide to jump on this opportunity from there.

P.P.S. We’re at the close of this letter, but this is only the beginning. If you’re someone who makes firm decisions, take advantage of this good fortune and in a matter of days, you’ll have a supply of this fountain of youth for yourself, changing your health and life for the better.

ADD TO CART

Click here to see this unusual test on live video.

Live well,

Natalie Moore
Managing editor, Living Well Daily

P.S. Perhaps the most surprising result of this test is the one kind of water that didn’t fail, is actually cheaper than most brands of bottled water! (And it’s definitely NOT tap water…)

Dr Olga

http://www.olgalazin.com

My Blog: http://olgaandreimagda.blogspot.com

Plant Of The Day: Burundanga

Burundanga/Borrachio – Plant-Sourced Scopalamines

Scopalamine is a very useful drug. When taken as directed by the orders of a physician, it can alleviate motion-sickness, flatulence and other gastrointestinal disturbances.

It also has a reputation as a truth-serum. Like sodium amytal, it can render a person somewhat disoriented and talkative. Like the stronger benzodazepines, it can induce retrograde amnesia. It can also induce waking-trances where the individual is unaware that the dream they seem to be having is indeed all too real, and persons under the influence of scopalamine can be ordered to release passwords, empty bank accounts, and engage in sexual acts without their consent or even full knowledge. Scopalamine has generally been rather difficult to manufacture, and for the most part there has been little public demand for this chemical here in America, where for the most part our pop-culture holds the use of interrogation and subjugation chemicals as reserved for the occasionally essential but universally despised world of international espionage.

In Colombia, South America, however, the drug has been used as a weapon within some segments of the culture, and it now appears that plant-sourced scopalamine, possibly potentiated by other as-yet-unknown amines in the raw plant extract of the Borrachio ("drunken") tree, is hitting the streets of America, traded as currency in certain immigrant-criminal and illegal-alien-criminal markets. Most Americans have no idea that this chemical exists, and many Americans are doubtless still trying to figure out what has happened to them on that long night they cannot remember, the night when they weren’t careful enough about their drinks and woke up the next day penniless and lost.

If you speak Spanish, please see this page direct from Colombia itself. This is from Javeriana University, and this is their Burundanga Page, "the Specter of Scopalamine".

Anyone interested in such things is very strongly advised to first read the seminal book Serpent and the Rainbow (forget the movie which is misleading pop-trash), and then to do some investigation into the religion of Santaria, which many describe as the Hispanic version of vodoun (voodoo), a mixture of paganism, african and south/central american shamanism, and degenerate adaptations of some of the central rituals of a banned Catholic heresy. The book Serpent and the Rainbow details the discovery of the plant-sourced toxins which underly many of the Haitian Vodoun practices, such as the puffer-fish toxin responsible for inducing catatonia and suggestibility in the creation of zombi. The references to the African culture which was one of the primary sellers of African slaves for the New World trade, and their use of plant-sourced chemicals as control factors, are invaluable. AKA Devil’s Breath

Initial warning… repost to UseNet of excerpts of an article from the Wall Street Journal July 3 1995.Extracted from another article..References to a scholarly work which details burundanga and other daturoid drugs.Web Rangers Page on Burundanga (Scopalamine).Connecticut Sexual Assault Crisis Services Inc has an excellent page on drugs and sexual assaults, and they have a section on burundanga here or date-drug

Three Charts show U.S. Economic Growth

INTRODUCTION[1]

Born in stupendous Transylvania, Northern Romania, in a town called “Satu Mare,” I grew up like Alice in Wonderland:

On the one hand I was friends with the children of intellectuals, and also lovely Gypsy children who I taught the Romanian language as early as the first and second grade.

On the other hand, my family had a tough life because my parents were always working until late hours at night. My younger brother Alex and I read while waiting for mother, Magdalena, to arrive turn off our lights even as she continued into the wee hours her accounting work at home. She was compounding the lengths and width of the wooden logs that were heading to Russia year by year.

During the day, Magdalena let us play all day long to our heart’s content. So unique, and we felt so free exploring nature in Sighet.

In 1973, at age 10 as a fifth grader in Transylvania’s isolated town of Sighet[2], I had to make a fateful decision about my choice of foreign-language study: Russian or English. The pressure was on us to take up Russian, thus proving that we were all students loyal to the dictator Socialist” Nicole Ceausescu’s “Socialist Government” (read Romanian Communism allied with Moscow), but consciously I detested that system.

Although I wanted to learn English, I did not then how fateful that choice would be until 1991, when at almost 27 years of age, I met Jim Wilkie who had been advised by his brother Richard to include my town of Sighet in his journey to assess the how Eastern Europe was faring after the fall of the “Berlin Wall,” short for the long wall that kept the people of Communist countries locked and unable to escape. But more later about how Jim found me as he sought an English-speaking intellectual and social guide to Eastern Europe.

In the meantime, growing up in Sighet with a population of only 30,000 people, we were proud to recognize Elie "Elie" Wiesel (born 1928) as our most prominent citizen long before he won the 1986 Nobel Peace Prize. He helped us get past the terrible history of Sighet Communist Prison where “enemies of the state” were confined until “death due to natural cause.”

In my early years I had a hard time understanding how the green and flowered valley of Sighet (elevation 1,000 feet, on the Tisa River at the foot of our forested Carpathian Mountains) could be so beautiful, yet we lived under the terribly cruel eye of the Securitate to protect from the people the wretched Dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu. Ceausescu,[3] who ruled from 1965 to his execution in 1989, was the harshest leader of all the countries behind Russia’s Wall against Western Europe.

Oddly enough, in the Transylvania of the late 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, supposedly I was living the “Golden Age of Romanian Socialism,” but even to myself as a young student; I could see that the promised “full progress” was clearly a lie. Most adults agreed but feared to speak so bluntly.

Even though the “English-Speaking USA” had been supposedly always threatening to invade Romania, I continued to study English language and literature. That I chose to study English even though the act alone brought suspicion on me because all society was taught to believe since 1945 that we were fighting off the Great Satin USA.[4] America was officially seen as a threat to Romania and it allies under Russia’s COMECON,[5] all of which I became only fully aware as I grew older and had to buy the English Course textbooks on the risky, expensive Black Market.

In the meantime, without rarely granted permission, we were forbidden to meet and visit with foreigners, especially those who spoke English and who wanted to hear from us about Sighet and its nearby wooden hamlets of the Maramures Province, where I have my first memories. The region is ethnically diverse, with a stimulating climate ranging from very hot summers and very cold winters. Geographically, we lived in the valleys and Mountains of Gutinul through which the rivers of Iza and Tisa flow. Geographically, the beautiful forested Tisa River is the natural border with Southern Ukraine.

As folklore has it in the West, vampires are native to Transylvania. We had vampires, werewolves, and wolverines, but all the mythological characters were actually members of the Communist Party, which everyone had to join–except for me because with my knowledge, I was considered a security risk!

Fortunately, when in 1982 I entered the University Babes Boljay, in Cluj-Napoca, to earn my M.A. in 1990, for my sociology classes, I decided to conduct my field research project into the rural life of the North of Romania, recording the folklore (especially myths) invented and passed down by rural folks (including small merchants, farmers, fisherman, loggers) had had used that lore to help them survive for centuries.

Further, much of my research conducted among the outlying farmers, delved deeply into Transylvania Folklore, which prepared me well to understand Communist Party Lore.

Thus, for the second time, my fateful choice of a field research project had further prepared me, unknowingly, for my future with Jim Wilkie.

Once I had been admitted to the Babes Boljay University, which was called “the heart and brain of Transylvania,” I also further expanded and deepened deep studies in American language and literature. Also I studied Romanian language and literature in the Department of Philology. The Bolyai University Is considered the best University in Transylvania.

Upon beginning my mentoring for other students, I was happy to find a sense of freedom. Reading and writing comprehension were my forté during my four years at Cluj. I had always dreamt of being a professor and a writer and seemed to be off to a great start.

But I soon realized that our professors opened the day by reading the mounds of new Decrees just signed by Ceausescu. Thus, I began laughing, and other students join me in mocking the wooden language of Central Planning’s attempt to befuddle us with words from a wooden language, totally bent toward twisting our brains into confused submission. Professors and Securitate officers were acting as sweaty bureaucrats trying to teach us how to sharpen our mental images . Not one professor asked us, “What do each of you really think of all this Ceausescu propaganda of decrees harming the educational process?”

Professors had their favorite students and made sure they pointed this out in class, stifling any competition as they show openly their favoritism or nepotism.

When I reached the age of 22 in1985, I started to be argumentative, criticizing professors, especially the history professor who only knew only the History of the Romanian Communist Party.

Further, as a woman in academia, I began to resent being forced to do the military service. The Russians, having been directing Romanian politicians since 1945, pressured the Romanians to dig useless trenches as well as learn to disassemble and assemble the AK47!

The atmosphere was dreadful in classes. Restrictions were plentiful and absurd. Speech was not free; one couldn’t discuss issues freely in class, or make any real analysis or debate. One had to regurgitate what the professors were telling us. Modern economics led by and read whatever was there in the old books stacked in the communist library. Until I escaped Romania in 1992, I learned that the so-called economics classes we took taught nothing about money, credit, and such terms as GDP. The Marxian economics involved only

fuzzy nonsensical slogans such as “We Romanians have to fight-off the ‘running dogs of capitalism,” without the word “capitalism” ever being defined except in unrealistic theory laced with epithets.

Even as an English major, I could not speak with to foreigners in English –answering one question was a crime, according to the tendentious Security Decrees. Abortion was a crime punishable for up to 20 years in prison. Doctors performing it ended up in jail, and so did the pregnant women. Punishments were ridiculous—the Anti-Abortion Law lasted for 40 years, until 1990.

Furthermore if my uncle from Canada visited us, we were all under surveillance, the entire family. Even today, in 2016 one has to report to the police to declare if any visitor of family comes from the USA (or Canada, for some bizarre security reason). Well after 25 years, not much has changed in poor Romania.

THE INFLUENCE OF RECENT ROMANIAN HISTORY

In the meantime, the History of Transylvania weighed heavily on population of Romania, with constant change in the emerging political map always have left “citizens” always lost about who was really in charge.

Thus, Transylvania was originally part of the Dacia Kingdom between 82 BC until the Roman conquest in 106 AD. The capital of Dacia was destroyed by the Romans, so that a new as capital would serve the Roman Province of Dacia, which lasted until 350 AD, by which time the Romans felt so hated that it behooved them withdraw back to Rome.

During the late 9th century, western Transylvania was conquered by the Hungarian Army to later become part of the Kingdom of Hungary and in 1570 to devolve into the Principality of Transylvania. During most of the 16th and 17th centuries, the Principality became an Ottoman Empire vassal state, confusingly also governed by the Habsburg Empire. After 1711 Transylvania was consolidated solely into the Hapsburg Empire and Transylvanian princes were replaced with Habsburg imperial governors. After 1867, Transylvania ceased to have separate status and was incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary as part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[6] After World War I, Transylvania reverted in 1918 to be part of Romania. In 1940 Northern Transylvania again became governed by Hungary and then Germany, but Romanian queen Maria successfully reclaimed it after the end of World War II.

The year 1940 was important for Romania because if was seized for its oil by Nazi Germany (1940-1944), “liberated” by the “Soviet Union” (1944-1947), and finally “re-liberated” to become the Popular republic of Romania (under USSR remote control), as the Cold War was beginning to freeze the Iron Curtain into place.

At the end of World War II while the USSR and its Red Army were the occupying powers in all Romania, in 1947 Romania forcibly and ironically became a “People’s Republic” (1947–1989), after the rise of the Iron Curtain.

The first “president,” Gheorghiu-Dej (1947) ruled as puppet of Moscow, but when he died, his Secretary General of the Communist Party of Romania, Nicolae Ceausescu, was elected as the second “president” (1965-1989), shifting his savage dictatorship into a harsher Romanian “Gulag” than known in the USSR.

For two decades I neither understood the dimensions of tragic history of Transylvania, did I understand that I would have to escape the Gulag of Romania by the “skin of my teeth.”

For peoples of the world Transylvania seems to be a far away place, where most people know the werewolves and vampires have been “seen” to in the imagination of Transylvanians, whose beliefs was soaked in mystical folklore. Even today it is hardly possible to have a rational conversation with most the Transylvanian folk on any subject without recourse to try to understand where their distorted imagination has befuddled them.

The population has consisted of Romanians, Hungarians, Germans, and some Ukrainians. These languages are still being spoken in Romania’s Maramures province, but because I always liked and loved the Romanian language, I decided to become a Professor of Romanian Language and Literature.

MY BACKDROP TO THE FALL OF CEAUSESCU

I later told Jim how I had been admitted in 1982 to the Babes-Bolyai University, in Cluj-Napoca at the heart of Transylvania, I focused especially on Linguistics. Unfortunately, there I found that the professors, who were under the control of sweaty Securitate officers, had to read dozens of new Decrees issued every day as they sought to control every one of our daily actions—all in the name of protecting the Ceausescu government—which was selling the country’s food supplies to Russia in order to pay down Roman’s official debt at our experts. Those Securitate officers ate well and ominously watched us virtually starve. They said, be calm like your parents in the face of starvation.

Thus, I furiously called out in my classes that our very existence was being compromised by Ceausescu’s abandonment of the population, which was ordered to, as Lenin famously said, “work, work, and work.”

To protect myself as best I could, I turned to humor, seeking to ridicule Ceausescu’s “national paradise.” But when I encouraged my classmates to laugh at the propaganda embedded in the wooden language of the national bureaucracy, I soon fell under the heavy scrutiny of university authorities, who were furious that I trying to expose the fact that all classes had been organized to befuddle the student body into confused submission. Indeed, each professor had favorite students to help drown out legitimate questions and stifle any competing analysis—the university lived under nepotism, favoritism, the threat of rape (virtual and real) by the Securitate officers, and open bribery–choose your garden variety.

MY 1986 FLIGHT FROM ROMANIA BACKFIRES

By 1986, at age 23, I had decided to flee Romania—an illegal act because Ceausescu did not want anyone (especially women of child-bearing age) to escape his plan to building his “ideal socialist industries” on farms and ranches as well as in the cities. In June I made my way to the border of Yugoslavia and paid a smuggler to evade the Romanian security forces that were preventing the “nations workers” from escaping. The smuggler, who took me across the border, turned out to be working for Romanian Border Police. Thus, soon after crossing into Yugoslavia, he turned his wagon around and I was again in Romania again when I realized what had happened too late. I had been “sold” to Ceausescu’s minions for a wagonload of salt and 20 Liters of gasoline. Thousands were returned for this kind of draconian exchange.

That failed escape from Romania led me to a 10-month prison sentence in Timisoara Prison, wherein the block cells were maintained so cold (supposedly to eliminate bacteria and viruses) that it made all of us inmates sick with the cold and the flu.

Cell bed blankets were less warm than one Kleenex tissue. Moreover there were no pillow, and the concrete slab where inmates slept was a back-breaker. The lights were on 24 hours a day, blinding all of us, and there was constant observation. Every hour one was awakened to be counted for, and sneaking up on people, under the guise of watching out for suicides. But everyone could be clearly seen by the guards, and there was no need to sleep-deprive inmates. There was also someone in the higher echelon ripping off the food budget to siphon money to themselves while serving inmates only baby carrots and spicy beans.

Almost every family in Romanian civil society had at least one member who had been imprisoned for trying to open the political system by denouncing the Ceausescu dictatorship. These inmates were openly called “Political Prisoners,” and I was one of them.

Political Prisoners were not permitted to work outside the prison walls in the fields because our crime had been the political decision to repudiate Ceausescu’s “fantastic system.”

OUT OF PRISON IN 1987 AND OPEN TO CHANGE IN THE AIR

Once free in 1987, I could return to my University to finally complete my M.A. in 1990.

Further in 1987, at the age of 24, I met the Family patriarch Nicolae Pipas,[7] who directed for the Communist government the walled Regional Art Museum in a quiet part of Sighet. Being a Professor of Indian and English Languages, and being one of the few highly educated persons who spoke English in the region, I began to serve as interpreter/guide to visiting foreign Ambassadors permitted to travel in Romania. They wanted to see the Museum with its magnificent collection of paintings, sculptures, and rare historical pottery and coins. Thus, I soon found myself translating for visiting English-Speaking Ambassadors from many countries who wished to know Transylvania, especially my village Sighet and its Merry Cemetery famous worldwide for it tombstones in the form of wood sculpture of the butcher, the baker, candlestick maker, and all professions.

Although my first languages were Romanian and Hungarian, I could also translate into French and Italian. Indeed at that time I was teaching Latin in the Rural School System of my Maramures Province.

By 1989, Ceausescu realized that his end was near, and he sought to gain support by pardoning his political prisoners (such as myself) who had tried to escape the horrendous conditions in the country. Hence, university students and some labor unions joined forces and quite quickly after the fall of the Berlin Wall forced Ceausescu and his draconian wife Elena to flee. They were caught and executed on Christmas Day, 1989, by the military that at the last moment joined the Revolution.

As my friends and I (along with most of the population) cheered the fall of the failed, rotten Romanian “dictatorship of the proletariat,” my dear mother acted differently. She was so confused by the propaganda of the only “leader” she knew much about that she wept for Ceausescu, not fully realizing that he was the one who had wrongly had be arrested and put me in prison.

With Ceausescu gone, in 1990 I was able to secure a passport to ready myself to leave Romania by gaining visas for Germany and France. The question remained, how to get there by land without a visa to Austria—my region had no air connection to the outside world.

MY FATEFUL 1991 MEETING IN SIGHET WITH JIM WILKIE

Almost age 27 in 1991, I was in the right place at the right time when UCLA Professor Jim Wilkie arrived in Sighet September 17th with Professor James Platler (his friend and driver). They came as part of their trip to assess the impact of the 1989 Fall of Iron Curtain–which had imprisoned all Romanians and made it a crime to try to escape from Romania. The two Americans had already visited “East” Germany,

Czech,[8] and Slovakia (soon to break their union, each becoming independent), and Poland, where English speakers could provide guidance.

In Romania the UCLA Team found itself at a loss as few of the people who they encountered could speak English and none of them could analyze or articulate how the System of Government and society functioned before and after 1989.

When we met, Jim immediately contracted[9] with me to advise them as well as guide them through Eastern Europe. They were pleased to hear the my outline of Transylvanian and Romanian history (see above), with which I explained how constant national boundary change meant that Transylvanians and Romanians were never able to develop either honest civil government or active civic society. Little did I know that the concepts of “Civic” and “Civil” Society were of utmost importance to Jim? As I would find out later, Jim and I had been conducting compatible research for years and would lead me to (A) my PHD Dissertation and (B send C) two books written with Jim. [10] All these works distinguish between the concepts of CivilSociety (which represents national and local governmental activity and Civic Society (which involves active private citizens (who organize non- governmental initiatives to develop model projects beyond the ability of official bureaucrats to even comprehend, including the influence needed to monitor and expose the failures and successes of governmental activity).

But before we left September 18th to visit Romania and Hungary, I had to find a substitute for my new class teaching American English and History in Sighet—I left a friend, Johnny Popescu, to become my permanent substitute. Only then could our newly expanded Team set off under my guidance.

Thus, we set out on September 18, 1991, to visit one of the most socially and economically interesting and beautiful parts of Romania by going up thought the green forested Carpathian Mountains via the beautiful Prislop Pass, stopping to visit small farming families in their folkloric clothing of which they were justifiably proud to wear on a daily basis. Farther east in Romania, on the scenic roads, we visited the monasteries of Moldova, the town of Cimpulung Moldovenesc, Suceava, and then the Monasteries in Sucevita and Agapia. The gorgeous forested mountain road eventually led to Lacul Rosu and the lake country. Then we took the long scenic mountain road to Cluj Napoca to visit my prestigious University.

As I briefed Jim about Romania, he was briefing me about factors in comparing national economies. For example, he told me about how he had reunited in Prague on September 15th with Richard Beset, his former UCLA student and friend, to hear about his role in London as Manger of DeutscheBank’s New Accounts in Russia and Eastern Europe. Richard had become famous for inviting Banking Officials and national Treasury Ministries to deposit their financial reserves on deposit in his bank in London. But because those who did not understand anything about “interest payment on deposited funds, they did not ask for nor did they gain any interest payments. Also, because most Western Banks were not sure that these new “capitalists” could be “fully trusted” for correct management of their deposits, his Deutsche Bank collected large fees to keep the Eastern Europe reserves safe. This was all very eye opening for me.

Jim and I had realized early on that we had a close affinity as we analyzed the situation of Romania, and he said, “Call me Jim.” (In contrast I called Professor James Platler “JP.”) As we traveled to observe the situation of the people in different parts of the country, Jim and I formed a deep bond of observing and analyzing; thus both of realized this brief interlude had to continue for the long term in order to achieve our goals.

NEXT STOPS, BUDAPEST, SALZBURG, MUNICH,

BORDEAUX (FOR ME), AND LOS ANGELES (FOR JIM)

As a Romanian, I had the right to enter Hungary, and we did so bypassing the miles of vehicles waiting to cross the border for the long drive to Budapest. There Prof. James Platler finally relaxed after the long drives and often poor hotels and hotels—he said that he finally found unbroken civilization again.

Once we arrived in Budapest, Professor James Platler, who had told Jim privately that from the outset of our trip that he thought that I was a “Spy” (planted on us by the Romanian Securitate to monitor our many “foreign” inquiries during our travel through Romania’s north country), announced that his concern about me had vanished as we realized the extent of my knowledge and research abilities. In his mind, I had to be a Spy because I had obtained access to special private dining rooms and quarter in some fine hotels, as well as invitations for wonderful lunches at some Monasteries, where miraculously I made immediate friends with each Mother Superior. But by the time we reached Budapest, he realized that at my University I had learned the Elite skills needed to survive safely and comfortably in Eastern Europe.

My problem was to enter Austria, where I had no visa. But Jim passed his UCLA business card through to the Consul General of Austria in Budapest, and quickly we found ourselves whisked from the back of the long line to the front and right into a meeting with the Consul General himself. He was pleased to hear about the research of our UCLA Team, but said that I did have a visa. Jim then told them that I only needed a three-day transit visa to reach Germany, the visa for which he could see in my passport.

With entry to Austria solved, we were on the road to the Hotel Kobentzl and Graz, which overlook Salzburg, all the way analyzing the comparative economic and social situations of Austria, Hungary, and Romania.

We spent most of our time down the mountain from Kobentzl in the valley, before returning to our sweeping Hotel view of Salzburg City. Meanwhile I was deepening my questions about capital is leveraged to undertake big private projects. As we took photos over from on high looking down on the many bridges of Salzburg and Jim was explaining how the developed world operated by using finances, credit, and interest to help economies grow.

Finally we left Salzburg to enter Germany and Munich, where our quick look into Oktoberfest found us among nasty drunken louts each of whom seemingly had hand four hands: one to chug-a-lug beer; one to smoke foul smelling cigarettes; one to quaff horrible-bleeding-raw sausages; and one to punch someone in the face. From what we saw, Oktoberfest was a place for nasty males seeking to “get smashed on beer” and then smash another male to break his nose. Thus, we fled for our lives as the brutes began to threaten anyone who looked at them.

Then on September 30th, I took the plane from Munich to Paris to take a bus to Bordeaux to meet the family, which had invited me to France.

Jim (and JP) also left the same day for Jim to arrive in time to go from the airplane to open and begin teaching his Fall Quarter class at UCLA. But he promised to call daily and return to join me again in ten weeks.

In the meantime, I made a trip to Paris to request political asylum in France, but a grey-faced judge rejected my request, saying that the petitioner must file with the help of a lawyer.

To complicate matters in Bordeaux, the French Security Agent there was investigating me, a lone woman, as a possible SPY sent by Romania to “monitor activities at the Port of Bordeaux. When he told that, if I pleased him in unmentionable ways, he would not deport me to Romania but arrange my legal status in France, I immediately told Jim on his next telephone call.

To resolve our problem, Jim called his Paris friend Gérard Chaliand, a former visiting professor at UCLA, whose real job involved traveling the world for French Security to report on his professorial travels that took him to all continents. Gérard immediately called French Security to report on the illegal approach to me by their Agent in Bordeaux. That same day the Agent came to apologize profusely to me in the best manner that he could muster in his pitiful condition. He begged me not to have him fired for his proposition to me. I could see him looking at me in truly puzzled way that implicitly said: “Who are you? How did I make such a grave mistake in deciding that you, a lone Romanian women could not have any power to reach my bosses in Paris?” I took pity on him and told him that if he minded manners and watched from affair to be sure that I was always safe, he would not be fired.

JIM RETURNS TO EUROPE DECEMBER, 1991:

HIS PLAN FOR ADVISING EASTERN EUROPEAN CIVIC SOCIETY ABOUT HOW TO GAIN GRANTS FROM U.S. FOUNDATIONS, WHICH HOLD THE WORLD’S LARGEST POOL OF NGO DEVELOPMENT FUNDS

Even though it was December 11,1991, when Jim returned, France was in the midst what some in America call an “Indian Fall,” warm with colorful fall leaves still on the trees. It was a beautifully bright “fall day” when we left Bordeaux the next day to spend some days visiting the Loire River with its many castles and incredible views.

Even during our photography of the Loire region, Jim began to outline his New Plan (now our plan) to wit:

PROFMEX Plan to Help Eastern European “Foundations”

Become legally eligible to gain grants from U.S. Tax Exempt Foundations following Jim’s

“U.S.-Mexico Model for Philanthropy.”

Indeed, Jim told me that recently when he had been in Mexico City, he received an invitation to meet with Manuel Alonso Muñoz, Executive Director of Mexico’s National Lottery,[11] who when he heard about Jim’s U.S.-Mexico Model, invited him to meet at the Lottery’s historically famous ornate building. After an extended briefing by Jim, Manuel told him that he had already called his own good friend Ronald G. Hellman, Professor of Sociology in the Graduate School at the City University of New York, to ask him for an evaluation of Jim and his Mexico-U.S. Model for Philanthropy. Ironically, it was only then when he realized that Ron was (and is today) Jim’s PROFMEX Vice-President for Strategic Planning. With that news and Jim’s stellar briefing, Lic. Alonso asked if the Lottery could make a series of generous grants to PROFMEX in order to help fund the expansion of Jim’s Model to Eastern Europe, [12]putting Mexico into an innovative new light.

Manuel Alonso was appreciative of the fact that Jim, while serving as Consultant to the U.S. Council on Foundations, had become involved since 1990 with his Model for helping Mexican Foundations (including, for example, charities, human rights organizations, hospitals, universities, biospheres, etc.) to re-write their constitution and by-laws to be compatible with the U.S. tax requirement that they mirror U.S. Not-for-Private Profit Organizations (NPPOs).

The question of “mirroring” involved Jim’s explanation that:

As NPPOs, U.S. Foundations are legally responsible for controlling expenditure of funds granted to organizations that do not mirror the U.S. foundations do not want to be involved in the day-to-day activities of its grantees. Indeed, “ they want to transfer “expenditure responsibility” (including misuse or illegal use of grant funds) to the recipient foundation to which they grant funds but can only do so if the grant recipient organization is deemed to have an “equivalent” legal structure to that of the U.S. donor foundation.

Here is the background, according to Jim: [13] “In order to facilitate the U.S. philanthropic activity needed during the 1970s and 1980s to help speed world development, the U.S. Secretary of Treasury and the IRS formulated provisions that resulted in changing and/or interpreting the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) to freely permit U.S. foundations to grant funds abroad, if they meet the following special proviso:

U.S. NPPOs can themselves make a legal “determination” that the foreign organization receiving the U.S. grant be “determined” to be “equivalent” to an NPPO described in Section 501(c)(3)[14] of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code.”

Further, Jim pointed out that, “while this proviso has worked well for big U.S. grant-making foundations that place costly offices and staff around the world (such as Rockefeller and Ford Foundations), it has worked less well for foundations that have had to send their lawyers to meet with their legal counterparts in prospective ‘equivalent organizations, the legal cost of making such a determination often reaching $25,000 [or, by 2016, much, much more] for each new organization to receive funds from the U.S. NPPO. If that determination is favorable, the U.S. NPPO can transfer funds to the equivalent organization, just as it can to any other approved U.S. NPPO, and along with the transfer of funds to the recipient organization goes the transfer of responsibility over how the funds are spent.”

Transfer of ‘Expenditure Responsibility’ from the

U.S. Donor NPPO to the Foreign Recipient NPPO.

The ability of U.S. NPPOs to avoid costly expenditure responsibility, as Jim told, is one of the factors that have helped make American grant-making foundations so important in the world. Thus, U.S. NPPOs have been enabled to avoid becoming ensnarled in accounting processes and audits, which are better done by the foreign organization that receives and administers the U.S. NPPO grant of funds.

In this manner, said Jim, the U.S. NPPO is free to focus its energy on evaluating the substance of its grant programs. The ability of grant-making foundations to transfer Expenditure Responsibility to other NPPOs is the main reason that they generally prefer (and require) that their funds be granted only to approved organizations rather than to individuals or to non-approved organizations.

The above views, Jim said, do not mean that U.S. NPPOs are unable to grant funds to an organization that is not equivalent to a U.S. NPPO (or make grants to individual scholars, artists, or writers either at home or abroad), but to do so adds a complication to the grant-making process. Rather than passing on the Expenditure Responsibility (as the U.S. NPPO does when it makes grants to another NPPO or U.S. equivalent), the Expenditure Responsibility remains with the donor NPPO when it makes a grant to an organization that is not an NPPO (or its U.S. equivalent) or to an individual.

In the unlikely case where the donor NPPO retains Expenditure Responsibility, then, Jim told m in my interview with him on September 17, 1991, the donor foundation has to concern itself with costly financial oversight involved, which may problematic whether of in or outside the USA.

ON TO PARIS AND THE WORLD TO MEET WITH NPPO LEADERS ABOUT NEW FOUNDATIONS

Jim and I arrived in Paris on December 15, 1991, to meet with Jim’s contacts at the American Embassy, who heard about our research and suggested that Jim meet also with their counterparts at the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City. They agreed to help begin to our new Plan to expand to Eastern Europe and Russia Jim’s successful Model for Tax-Free Flow of Nonprofit Funds, the example being what he negotiated (with the U.S. Council on Foundations and the U.S. and Mexican Treasury Departments), as analyzed above.

It is important for me to say here that George Soros and his decentralized donations to his 41 semi-autonomous “national foundations”[15](exemplified in Romania, Hungary, and Russia) have been built following the IRS proviso and regulations discussed above. Also, Soros’ “National Foundations” require that national Government charter the independent role as NGOs.

In contrast, the flowering of thousands of independent “Foundations” in Eastern Europe since 1989 has grown from groups looking for funds from the many U.S. Foundations that do not have the Soros/New York link with its Foundations in many nations, all of which operate in Soros’ closed loop. Few of these new Foundations have the Soros knowledge and financial resources to set up the By-Laws and Legal Status needed for the thousands Foundations desiring to tap into funding by U.S. Foundations.[16] However, since 2013, Soros’ has organized an office to work with shared Global Funds (for food, migration, etc.) outside the non-Soros frameworks to help poor areas and countries to stave off crises.

Before we left Paris on December 19, 1991, we met with Gérard Chaliand to personally thank him for having made the Bordeaux Security agent reexamine his whole approach to his life.

Further, with Gérard, we worked out a plan to arrange for me to become a U.S. resident and obtain U.S. citizenship nine years after my arrival in Los Angeles, October 1992. He recommended that my case by handled in In Los Angeles by one of America’s most knowledgeable and effective Migration Attorneys—Cynthia Juárez Lange, today Managing Partner, Northern California, for the Fragomen Del Rey, Bernsen & Loewy LLP Legal Office located in San Francisco. Cynthia is a personable genius.

In our travels in December 1991 and from March to June 1992 we met NPPO leaders in the European Union to better understand how foundations work under unique laws in each county rather than in any rational manner for the whole EU, we went to Marseilles, Nice, Villfranche-sur-Mer, Cap-Ferrat, Monaco, La Rochelle, Andorra, Sevilla, Madrid, Trujillo, El Escorial, Avila, and Segovia.

On September 3. 1992, we arrived at the U.S. Consulate in Paris, where the U.S Consulate in Mexico had arranged with Jim for my U.S. eligibility for residence to be issued. Also, the Mexican Consulate General in Paris issued me my residence papers to enter and leave Mexico freely, as arranged by Jim with the Mexican Consular Office in Mexico City.

By September 7, 1992, we were Romania for meetings with Civic Activists in Sighet (where I finally returned after “escaped” with Jim in December 1991).

From March to June 1993, we met with NPPO leaders in Budapest, Sighet, and Varna (Bulgaria), Bucharest, and St. Petersburg.

In Moscow (June 21-14, 1993), Jim appointed Professor Boris Koval (Director of the Latin American Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences), to be PROFMEX Representative in Russia. Koval had invited us to Moscow and introduced us to his own Security Chief to be our translator and guide. Thus Security Chief was a fascinating person who had been former head of the KGB Office in Iran, 1979-1989.

Jim, who always wore his Mexican guayabera shirt with or without a suit, was seen to be “authentically Mexican” in our meetings and discussions about NPPOs and the Soros Open Society Foundations in Russia success in Russia (1987-2002) and problems of the Soros Foundations in Russia since 2003, when, under Government pressure, he was phasing out of operation active programs.

(When on November 30, 2015,[17] Russia’s Prosecutor General’s Office classified the Soros Open Society Foundation as an “undesirable” organization, it closed the possibility of Russian individuals and institutions from having anything to do with any Soros initiative or programs… [Because it constituted] a threat to the foundations of Russia’s Constitutional order and national security….

(Prosecutors [then] launched a probe into Soros Foundation activities….[18] [and in July 2015], after Russian senators approved the so-called “patriotic stop-list” of 12 groups that required immediate attention over their supposed anti-Russian activities, [the following U.S. organizations] realized that they would soon be banned in Russia: [the U.S.] National Endowment for Democracy; the International Republican Institute; the National Democratic Institute; the MacArthur Foundation, and Freedom House.

The American hedgefunds mogul George Soros issued from London the following Press Release on November 30, 2015: [19]

(Contrary to the Russian prosecutor’s allegations, the Open Society Foundations have, for more than a quarter-century, helped to strengthen the rule of law in Russia and protect the rights of all. In the past, Russian officials and citizens have welcomed our efforts, and we regret the changes that have led the government to reject our support to Russian civil society and ignore the aspirations of the Russian people.

Since 1987, Open Society has provided support to countless individuals and civil society organizations, including in the fields of science, education, and public health. Open Society has helped finance a network of internet centers in 33 universities around the country, helped Russian scholars to travel and study abroad, developed curricula for early childhood education, and created a network of contemporary art centers that are still in operation.

(This record speaks for itself. We are honored to have worked alongside pioneering citizens, educators, and civil society organizations that embody Russian creativity, commitment, and hope.

(“We are confident that this move is a temporary aberration; the aspirations of the Russian people for a better future cannot be suppressed and will ultimately succeed,” said George Soros, founder and chairman of the Open Society Foundations.) Despite all efforts made by Soros and his organizations, he has been banned from Russia.

Once with the reset of the Cold War, in 2012, when Putin was reelected as Russia’s President, Putin’s first movement was to ban all Soros organizations which were impeding his expansion onto Crimeea.

Back in Mexico City for the 1994 PROFMEX Event featuring Eastern Europeans interested in the U.S.-Mexico Model for NPPOs, we convened, July 28-29, for our meeting on “Development of Mexico as seen from the World,” Co-sponsored by UCLA and Mexico’s Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología.

This Conference was held at Mexico City’s María Isabel Sheraton, with 70 participants from Mexico and the United States, and which I co-organized with Jim

The following invitees from Eastern Europe came from

Hungary

Zoltan Karpati, Professor of Sociology

Romania

Mihai Coman, University Dean

Roman Romulus, Consul General in Mexico

Alexandru Lazín, PROFMEX– England and Romania

Lia Stan, Investor from Bristol, England.

Highlights of the event came frequently as we turned our gaze from Salón A with his all-window view from the top floor to discuss the anti-government protest marches up and down Reforma Avenue past the Angel Monument below.

Further, our group enjoyed the invitation of Mexico’s Attorney General, Jorge Madrazo Cuéllar to visit him at his headquarters where we personally discussed and raised questions about the street blockages in front of our María Isabella Hotel.

In December 1997, we continued to invite world scholars especially interested in economic matters, as well as in the U.S.-Mexico NPPO Model to participate with us at the:

IX PROFMEX-ANUIES Conference

hosted by Governor Víctor Manuel Tinoco Rubí in Morelia, Michoacán.

México y el Mundo

Mexico and the World

December 8-13, 1997

With hundreds of participants and Attendees from all continents,

Special Guests were invited from:

Russia: Boris Koval, who recalled with excitement the visit of

Jim and I to Moscow in June 1993.

China: Sengen Zhang

Hongzhu Huang

Korea: Kap-Young Jeong

Japan: Soichi Shinohara

Osamu Nishimura

Yasuoki Takagi

Indonesia: Lepi T. Tarmidi

Argentina: Eugenio O. Valenciano

Bolivia: Antonio J. Cisneros