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Civic Engagement, Civil Polity, and Philanthropy in The U.S.A, Romania & Mexico (First Series) Paperback – July 31, 2018

 
 
 
 
 

 

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Civic Engagement, Civil Polity, and Philanthropy in The U.S.A, Romania & Mexico (First Series) Paperback – July 31, 2018

 
 
 
 
 

 

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 Author Dr Olga M Lazin on Amazon

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Books By Dr Olga M Lazin
in the U.S., Romania and Mexico Bestseller on AMAZON

FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION IN Romania, Mexico, and Bolivia

LUCRETIA BERZINTU

Iasi, str. Ciurchi nr.117C, bl.S7, et.3, ap.2.

IASI

Tel.40 756 922 599

Decentralization is about delegating, distributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location or authority.

While centralization, especially in the governmental sphere, is widely studied and practiced, there is no common definition or understanding of decentralization. The meaning of decentralization may vary in part because of the different ways it is applied. Concepts of decentralization have been applied to group dynamics and management science in private businesses and organizations, political science, law and public administration, economics and technology.

Decentralisation is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group.[1] Concepts of decentralization have been applied to group dynamics and management science in private businesses and organizations, political science, law and public administration, economics, money and technology.

Gvt Decentraliztion, FISCAL:

FiscaL

Fiscal decentralization means decentralizing revenue raising and/or expenditure of moneys to a lower level of government while maintaining financial responsibility.[49] While this process usually is called fiscal federalism it may be relevant to unitary, federal and confederal governments. Fiscal federalism also concerns the “vertical imbalances” where the central government gives too much or too little money to the lower levels. It actually can be a way of increasing central government control of lower levels of government, if it is not linked to other kinds of responsibilities and authority.[82][83][84]

Fiscal decentralization can be achieved through user fees, user participation through monetary or labor contributions, expansion of local property or sales taxes, intergovernmental transfers of central government tax monies to local governments through transfer payments or grants, and authorization of municipal borrowing with national government loan guarantees. Transfers of money may be given conditionally with instructions or unconditionally without them.[49][85]

Economic or market[edit]

Economic decentralization can be done through privatization of public owned functions and businesses, as described briefly above. But it also is done through deregulation, the abolition of restrictions on businesses competing with government services, for example, postal services, schools, garbage collection. Even as private companies and corporations have worked to have such services contracted out to or privatized by them, others have worked to have these turned over to non-profit organizations or associations.

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Decentralization and Corruption : Evidence across Countries

My BOOK on Corruption:

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AND B. further reading:

Here; Decentralization and Corruption: Evidence across Countries, Fisman, Raymond; Gatti, Roberta. 2000. © World Bank
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/19852

This Book Just Proves My Point On Governmental Corruption: The relationship between decentralization of government activities and the extent of rent extraction by private parties is an important element in the recent debate on institutional design. The theoretical literature makes ambiguous predictions about this relationship, and it has remained virtually unexamined by empiricists. The authors make a first attempt at examining the issue empirically, by looking at the cross-country relationship between fiscal decentralization and corruption as measured by a number of different indices, in many countries. Their estimates suggest that fiscal decentralization in government spending is significantly associated with lower corruption.
Moreover, they find that the origin of a country’s legal system – for example, civil versus common legal code – performs extremely well as an instrument for decentralization. The estimated relationship between decentralization, when so instrumented, and corruption is even stronger. The evidence suggests a number of interesting areas for future work, including investigating whether there are specific services for which decentralized provision has a particularly strong impact on political rent extraction, and understanding the channels through which decentralization succeeds in keeping corruption in check.
Citation “Fisman, Raymond; Gatti, Roberta. 2000. Decentralization and Corruption: Evidence across Countries. Policy Research Working Paper; No. 2290. World Bank, Washington, DC. © World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/19852 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”
URI; http://hdl.handle.net/10986/19852

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I am a Book Publicist, James is UCLA RESEARCHER.

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